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AKA: LA BELLE EPOCH, AGE OF “MASS SOCIETY” AND AGE OF OPTIMISM AND DESPAIR CHAPTERS 25 AND 26 Age of Nationalism Events of the Late Nineteenth Century.

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Presentation on theme: "AKA: LA BELLE EPOCH, AGE OF “MASS SOCIETY” AND AGE OF OPTIMISM AND DESPAIR CHAPTERS 25 AND 26 Age of Nationalism Events of the Late Nineteenth Century."— Presentation transcript:

1 AKA: LA BELLE EPOCH, AGE OF “MASS SOCIETY” AND AGE OF OPTIMISM AND DESPAIR CHAPTERS 25 AND 26 Age of Nationalism Events of the Late Nineteenth Century

2 What happened by 1850 (or so)? “Continental” industrialization came of age Britain still led in the production of iron and manufacturing Markets expanded with the opening of waterways  Trade treaties in the 1860’s eliminated tolls on major river systems (Danube, Rhine)  Suez Canal linked the Mediterranean with the Indian Ocean  Germany had established the “zolvereign” The ideas of Marx and Engels had been absorbed by many French and British trade unionists who created the “First International”, a working-class movement organized along socialist lines

3 (slide 3 continued) Advances in science include thermodynamics, the periodic table and advances in electromagnetic induction (precursor to electricity) Increasing secularism, as evident in the movement known as “materialism” Charles Darwin wrote On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection and The Decent of Man Louis Pasteur experimented with germs, Joseph Lister developed antiseptics and chloroform helped in surgical operations Medical schools developed, many eventually accepting women A shift from Romanticism to Realism “Mass Society” emerged

4 I Almost Forgot… The rise of Imperialism

5 The Growth of Prosperity – Age of Optimism New industries, new goods, new sources of energy and new prosperity led Europeans to believe that technology and science could solve all human problems The new urban and industrial world created changes that led to a new mass society, which meant improvements in the standard of living for the lower classes. New work patterns established the “weekend” and more time for leisure activities, including sports and amusement parks where social classes intermingled

6 (slide 5 continued) Mass society saw the role of government change as it became more involved in public health and housing issues, especially in the cities Democracy expanded the right to vote to all adult males, though women will still continue to fight for political rights

7 Improved Standard of Living Wages on average will almost double in the late 19 th century However, poverty will exist and there was a growing gap between rich and poor Wealthy elite made up 5% of the population and controlled 40-50% of its wealth

8 Lower Classes Made up 80% of the population Many are landowning peasants, laborers and sharecroppers, more so in Eastern than Western Europe Peasants came into contact with other classes as a result of military conscription. New public elementary schools forced children to learn national loyalties and the national language Urban working class included skilled, semiskilled and unskilled laborers. Unskilled laborers make up the bottom of the lower class Improvements in wages, a decrease in product costs and improved cities helped improve the conditions of the working classes. They could now afford other items besides just food, and they had more leisure time as a result of collective bargaining for better wages and hours

9 “The Woman Question” Used to describe the debate on the role of women, society tried to answer the question on whether women should work outside of the home Women remained legally inferior, economically dependent, and defined by domestic roles; a traditional characterization of women which was due to industrialization, and still persists today The practice of having the man go out of the home to work with pay and women playing a domestic role with no pay (“separate spheres”) was rare among working lower classes

10 Marriage and Family Marriage was seen as the only honorable profession available to women Middle class values glorified domesticity For most women, marriage was an economic necessity. Lack of meaningful, well-paid work for women gave them little choice in the matter Birthrates, which had grown up to 1870, dropped significantly. Causes include:  Development of new birth control methods  Too a large degree – attitudes changed. More information about birth control became available, despite persecution  Despite persecution, family planning was encouraged to help reduce poverty in the lower classes, however it was also practiced by middle class families

11 Migration Encouraged by:  Population pressure (fewer deaths again due to urban improvements and science)  Opening economic and social opportunities abroad  Cheaper land abroad  Minority persecution (Jews and others that did not meet the new “national ideal”)

12 Who Moved and Where Did They Go? Who:  Most often a small peasant landowner or village craftsman losing business to large industry  Skilled, technical workers  those in the minority Where:  U.S., Russia, Canada, Argentina, Brazil, Australia, New Zealand

13 White Man’s Burden European ethnocentric attitudes encouraged by Social Darwinism (survival of the fittest) Created the “need” to “civilize” the barbarians and convert them to Christianity

14 Imperialism in Africa (go to slide 46) The vast interior of Africa held little European interest prior to this period (why?) Between 1807 and 1820, most Europeans abolished the slave trade (does that mean no slavery at all? Also – why now?) As slave trade ends, Europeans turn their greedy eyes to the second most valuable resource from Africa – the land itself (ironic, isn’t it?)

15 South Africa: Gold, Diamonds and… a British Crown? Prior to the 1860’s, Africa used mainly for shipping and military reasons (coastal presence) 1795 – British seized Cape Town from the South African Dutch (aka, Boers or Afrikaners) who trek northeast into the interior Boer War (1899-1902) was fought after they (the Dutch) discover diamonds and gold. The British won and establish a colony in which only white males could vote Educated South Africans organize the “African National Congress” (sound familiar?)

16 Another Part of Africa: Egypt Muhammed Ali (not the same guy) defeated the French and the Ottomans in 1805, though technically still part of the Ottoman Empire Ali industrialized Egypt and expanded agriculture toward cotton (why cotton?) Subsequent rulers worked with the French and completed the Suez Canal in 1869 (what two bodies of water were linked?)



19 Africa: Divide and Conquer 1884 – Otto von Bismarck hosted a conference in Berlin and Europeans set up colonization rights and boundaries in Africa Within 3 decades, almost all of Africa was colonized by European countries (Which ones? Take a guess, you’re probably right)

20 Wait, There's More… Boundary lines not drawn according to African history – disputes further encourage disunity among Africans Traditional African culture fell into decline as European schools, missionaries and western business practices supplanted it

21 Consequences Europeans built roads, canals, railroads, dams Africa stripped of natural resources Natives treated harshly Direct rule over colonies exercised by all Europeans except Britain, who allowed local self-rule (similar to Roman Empire)

22 Compare: European Colonialism in Africa America

23 Imperialism in India Mughal Empire – Are they still in power? 1750’s - British East India Company, under Robert Clive, will defeat the French in India and gain control of India over the next 100 years (what’s wrong with this picture?) Sepoy Mutiny: Too little, too late 1858 – British Parliament steps in, exiles the last Mughal ruler Queen Victoria – Empress of India

24 India: Model of British Imperialism Late 1800’s – raw materials flowed to Britain, manufactured goods flowed back to India (sound familiar?) Railroads and canals built Upper castes taught English and English customs, Christianity spreads

25 Indian National Congress 1885 – Well-educated Indians who dreamed of freeing India from British rule. It would take 2 World Wars before the dream is realized (more on that in “Period 5”) *Note – educated folks less likely to accept “subjugation”

26 Imperialism in China Up until now, what was China’s relationship with the West? In the 1830’s the relationship will change as the British “force their right to deal” (deal what? Drugs, of course!) 1839-1842 first “Opium War” (guess who wins?)

27 Treaty of Nanjing: More Opium, More Addicts 1842 - First of “unequal treaties” – Britain allowed expanded trading rights 1843 - Hong Kong declared a “crown possession” of Britain 1844 – Christian missionaries allowed back in China

28 More War Second Opium War, 1856-1860 – Occurred after China refused British rights to expand opium trade – China humiliated White Lotus Rebellion and Taiping Rebellion caused decay internally China – now considered an easy target, so that means…

29 Even More War 1876 – Korea declares independence 1883 – Sino-French War – China loses Vietnam to the French (subsequently named “French Indochina”) 1895 – Sino-Japanese War ended with Japanese control of Taiwan and trading rights (note: Japan also takes over Korea) France, Germany, Russia, Britain create “spheres of influence”

30 (BY THE WAY, WHERE IS THE U.S. IN ALL OF THIS? I’M GLAD YOU ASKED….) What’s the Difference Between Establishing a Colony and a “Sphere of Influence?”

31 Boxer Rebellion – Knocked Out in the First Round “Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists” Anti- Manchu, anti-Europeans and anti- Christians (guerilla warfare used to slaughter many of them) Rebellion failed - China forced to sign the “Boxer Protocol” which forced China to pay for the costs of the rebellion and apologize

32 Contrast: European Imperialism in China India

33 Chinese Culture Crumbles 1901 – footbinding abolished 1905 – Civil Service Exam was eliminated 1911 - Sun Yat-sen toppled the government and established a republic (more on that in the next period beginning in the year 1914)

34 Japanese Imperialism (far cry from isolationism ) 1853 – Commodore Matthew Perry arrived on a steamboat to Japan (big deal?) 1854 Treaty of Kanawaga signed (big deal?) Meiji Restoration ushers in Japanese westernization

35 Consequences By 1870 – Japan builds railways and steamships By 1876 – Samurai class out, conscription in By 1890’s – Maintained trade on equal footing with western powers 1895 – defeated China for control of Korea and Taiwan 1904 - Russo-Japanese War, kicked Russia out of Manchuria (Can anyone say “Imperial Power”? How about “World Power”?)

36 Compare IR in Europe IR in Japan

37 AGE OF OPTIMISM AND DESPAIR Politically Speaking…

38 Early and Late 19 th Century: A Comparison 1800-1850  Reform was limited  Revolutions of 1848 had failed  Liberalism and nationalism defeated as conservative, authoritarian governments prevailed  Conservative agenda upheld by the “Concert of Europe” After 1850  Some conservative leaders found a way to manipulate liberal and national ideologies to increase their power, practicing a new ideology known as “Realpolitik”  The Concert of Europe will disintegrate  Germany and Italy will unify, with major consequences to come


40 After: p. 839

41 France Napoleon III – came to power after the failure of the “Bourgeoisie government” of Louise Philippe Won support of the people, created the “Second republic”, and when denied the right to be re- elected he seized the government, gave universal male suffrage, and won a series of plebiscites to gain the title of emperor As such, he controlled the military, police and civil service. He alone could introduce legislation, control the budget and declare war

42 Domestic Policies of Napoleon III Domestic Agenda  Government subsidies for growth in industry and transportation  Free hospitals and medicine  Better housing for working class  “Modern” Paris with sewage, public water, gas lights and wide roads (aesthetic and military purpose) APE p. 794  Liberalized industry by allowing for labor unions and the right to strike  Liberalized government by giving free speech to opponents and a voice to the Legislative Corps Results  Major French railway lines completed  Tripling of iron production signaled industrial growth  Reduction of social tensions  By 1870 had the total support of the people Successful domestic policies will be eventually outweighed by foreign failures, and lead to Napoleon's decline

43 Republican France The defeat of the French in the Franco-Prussian War brought the downfall of Napoleon’s second empire, and a republican provisional government was formed However when Bismarck got involved and forced the French to chose a government by universal male suffrage, they chose monarch rule. In response, radical republicans created an independent government, the Paris Commune. When the government decided to crush the commune, working class people, including women, fought fiercely to defend it. When the commune was defeated, supporters were sent to penal colonies, establishing a legacy of hatred between the Middle and Working classes The monarchists, in an ironic turn, set up a government with a two-house legislature (one house elected by universal male suffrage) and a president

44 Unification of Italy – The Beginning Austria was dominant in Italy, especially after the revolts of 1848 failed. However, nationalists were not deterred When Victor Emmanuel replaced Charles Albert as King of Piedmont-Sardinia, he appointed Count Camillo di Cavour to be his Prime Minister Cavour was a wealthy, liberal-minded aristocrat who favored constitutional government Like Napoleon III, he pursued a successful policy of expansion of industry and transportation by expanding credit for investment. The money raised built a strong army Learning from the Revolution of 1848, he realized he would need the help of France to achieve Italian Unification

45 North and Central Italy Cavour promised the French the provinces of Nice and Savoy, and the hand of the King’s daughter to Napoleons cousin, who would be named King of Central Italy France took charge in defeating the Austrians, and Napoleon made a hasty peace without the consent of Italy (or control of Venetia) which angered Cavour Soon after, “Central Italy” had been taken over by nationalists who held a plebiscite in which they agreed to unify with Peidmont Napoleon agreed to the unification, in return for Savoy and Nice

46 Southern Italy While events were happening in northern Italy, Giuseppe Garibaldi and the “Red Shirts” revolted against the Bourbon king of the “Two Sicilies”, marching up the Italian peninsula toward Rome Fearing a French retaliation (and loss of power), Cavour sent in his troops to protect Rome Choosing against civil war, Garibaldi chose not to invade. Eventual plebiscites in both the Papal States and Two Sicilies led to the union with Piedmont.

47 Final Unification 1861 – The Kingdom of Italy was established with Victor Emmanuel as King Rome (French control) and Venetia (Austrian control) will still out of reach. In the Austro-Prussian and Franco-Prussian wars, Italy was on the side of the victor and won control of Rome and Venetia. Rome eventually became the capital of Italy

48 See Map and Cartoon – p. 694 and 695

49 Italy Unification brought little “unification”:  Italian loyalty usually rested with the family and local regions, not the new state  There were differences between the poverty-stricken south and the industrialist north (who made up the leadership majority)  The Catholic Church resented loss of the Papal States to the state and did not recognize the unification of Italy  Turmoil between workers and industrialists persisted Reform in suffrage allowed for a whopping 10% of the population to vote (up from 2.5%) Lack of dominant parties and corruption allowed for little stability in government

50 Unification of Germany After unification failed in 1848-49, nationalists looked to Austria and Prussia While Austria controlled the “German Confederation”, Prussia controlled the Zollverein (customs union) of which Austria was not a part Middle-class liberals looked to Prussia to lead unification

51 Prussia Prussia had a bicameral legislature and universal male suffrage, although weighted votes allowed those who paid higher taxes to have more influence King Frederick William I was succeeded by William I, his brother William I felt the military needed to be revamped – he wanted to increase the budget to double the size of the army and have 3 year compulsory military service. The middle class parliament was weary of his intentions and voted against the measures

52 Count Otto von Bismarck Appointed Prime Minister by King William I in 1862 and dominated European politics until 1890 Had experience as a delegate to the German Confederation and ambassador to Russia A believer in realpolitik, he was an opportunist who waged war only when necessary, and after he had a clear advantage by isolating the enemy and they would be fighting only one enemy He resubmitted the earlier budget by William I and when the parliament voted it down, he ignored them


54 Danish War - 1864 Causes – When the Danish government violated a treaty and attempted to incorporate Holstein and Schleswig into Denmark. Prussia, joined by Austria declared war Course – After a quick, decisive victory, Prussia was given Schleswig and Austria was given Holstein Consequences – Prussia wanted control of the northern, largely protestant region of Germany and while openly pursued negotiations with Austria, they planned secretly to isolate them

55 Austro-Prussian War - 1866 Bismarck gained an agreement to remain neutral from Russia (recall the Crimean War), and France (who was promised the Rhineland). He also promised Venetia to Italy for their support (earlier slide) After goading Austria into war, Prussian weapons and railroads gave Prussia a decisive victory. The peace was not punitive, and Austria lost Venetia and was excluded from German affairs. The Northern German states were organized into a confederation under the control of Prussia Ever the politician, Bismarck used his success to have his illegal taxes legalized. He was able to separate the concept of liberalism and nationalism

56 Franco-Prussian War Cause - Isabella II was deposed and the throne was offered to a relative of the King William I. France objected and demanded Prussia withdraw his nomination, as well as an apology. Bismarck edited a telegram (Ems dispatch) sent to Napoleon III from William I to make it insulting. France declared war on Prussia Course – the Prussian forces quickly surrounded Napoleon and his army Consequence – France had to pay a large indemnity (1 billion) and give up Alsace and Lorraine to Germany. France wanted revenge.

57 Final Unification Before the war had ended, the southern German states agreed to unify with the north In 1871, William I was proclaimed Emperor of the “Second German Empire” Prussian leadership of the unification signaled the triumph of authoritarian, militaristic government over liberal, constitutional sentiments. With its industrial and military success, Prussia (now Germany) became the strongest power on the continent

58 See Map – p. 697

59 Unified Germany The German constitution called for a bicameral legislature:  The Bundserat (upper house) represented the 25 German states (some independent states kept their own kings and armies)  The Reichstag (lower house) elected by universal male suffrage The most important leadership positions (like “chancellor” Bismarck) and the army (made up of “junker” officers) were not held responsible to the parliament, but to the emperor, therefore real political democracy was thwarted

60 Bismarck (again) At the onset, Bismarck worked with liberals to achieve centralization of Germany with common codes of criminal and commercial law, and “Kulturkapf” to reduce the power of the Catholic church Around 1878, Bismarck abandoned liberal ideas turning to more conservative ones. Alarmed at the growing number of socialists, he had the Social Democratic Party outlawed, though socialists could still run for office in the Reichstag To woe workers from socialist ideas, he set up social welfare legislation for workers The socialist movement, however, continued to grow. Just as he was ready to pass more repressive measures, William II said “your fired” (or something like that, in German)

61 Austria: Toward A Duel Monarchy Habsburgs had crushed revolutionaries in Vienna, Buda and Prague, as well as the Hungarians and Czechs who wanted independence. However, the revolutions did bring serf emancipation The growth of industry after 1850 led to changes – an urban proletariat, labor unrest and a new middle class Economic troubles and the defeat in the war with Italy brought change

62 The Ausgleich (Compromise of 1867) An imperial parliament (Reichsrat) was set up by Francis Joseph in 1859 Meant to provide representation of the differing nationalities in the empire, the election formula ensured a German-speaking majority that alienated the ethnic minorities, especially the Hungarians After defeat in the Austro-Prussian war, the Austrians were forced into a compromise with Hungarian nationalists, creating the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary. Each had its own capital and legislature, held together by one king – Francis Joseph who controlled the army and foreign affairs

63 Austria-Hungary In Austria, Franz Joseph ignored the constitution which set up a parliamentary form of government Minority problems continued to plague the empire. Ethnic Germans, who made up 1/3 of the population, governed the rest of the mostly Slavic Austria. Problems persisted as the “nationalities problem” persisted into the 20 th century. Dissatisfied non-German groups continued to demand concessions from an unwilling Austrian German-ruling class In Hungary, the Magyar landowners controlled the peasantry and other ethnic groups of Hungary and attempted to solve nationalistic problems through “Magyarization” What unified Austria-Hungary was the loyalty to the Catholic Church, and to Emperor Franz Joseph, who put the interests of the nation above his hatred of Hungary

64 Overall Results of the Ausgleich of 1867 Other nationalities, especially Slavic peoples (Poles, Croats, Czechs, Serbs, Slovaks, Slovenes and Little Russians), felt oppressed by the German-speaking dual monarchy Nationality problems will last until the end of the empire in WWI

65 The “Eastern Question” Who would be the beneficiaries of the weakening Ottoman Empire?  17 th century – Ottomans controlled much of southeastern Europe  By the 18 th century -  lost Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, and Slovenia to Austria  Lost Crimea and Bessarabia to Russia, who also later became a “protectorate” of Moldavia and Wallachia  Revolts in Serbia and Greece led to their independence from the Ottomans by 1830

66 Causes of the Crimean War 1854-1856 War begins when Russia, under the leadership of Nicholas I, was denied the right to be the “protectorate” of the Christian shrines in Palestine by the Ottomans, and invaded Moldavia and Wallachia Failure to reach a diplomatic solution led Great Britain and France to declare war on Russia Great Britain feared an upset in the balance of power in Europe, and France was insulted that Russia was attempting to take away their right to be protectorate of Palestine Russia had expected help from Austria (they helped save the monarchy earlier from revolution in 1848) but Austria remained neutral


68 Course and Consequence Britain and France began a two year siege on Sevastopol, the main fortress of Russia on the Black Sea After great losses on both sides, the new csar, Alexander II, sued for peace. 1856 - Treaty of Paris – Russia had to give up Crimea, Bessarabia, Moldavia and Wallachia Austria and Russia were now enemies Russia recognized how “backwards” they were The biggest consequence – the “Concert of Europe” was destroyed

69 Death and Disease 250,000 soldiers died in the war – 60% from disease Florence Nightingale helped prevent even more deaths from disease by insisting on sanitary conditions Nightingale established the nursing profession of trained, middle-class women

70 Russia Russia’s defeat in the Crimean War signaled a need for change The reliance of an agricultural society and military based on a poor, uneducated serf class put Russia behind In 1861, Alexander II emancipated the serfs, which meant they could marry who they chose, own property and bring suits in a court of law

71 Limits to Serf Emancipation The government purchased land from landowners, who kept the good land for themselves, leaving the peasants with poor land and the bill To make sure peasants paid for their land, they were subject to their “mir”, or village commune, who made sure they did not leave or fail to make payments Freedom led to and unhappy, land-starved peasantry that lacked agricultural technology

72 Other Russian Reforms Alexander II instituted the system of zemstvos which provided for local governments with some degree of self-rule The voting system gave nobles an advantage Reformers felt let down, conservatives didn’t like the changes in the political structure

73 Repression in Russia Reformers such as Alexander Herzen suggested that peasants must be the vehicle of social reform through revolution. This idea was embraced by “populists” such as Vera Zasulich who joined the “Land and Freedom” underground populist organization and then attempted to assassinate a top Russian official. Inspired by Zasulich, the populist group known as the “People’s Will” assassinated Alexander II. His son and successor, Alexander III, was a reactionary who turned against reform and re-established traditional forms of repression

74 Mother Russia After the assassination of Alexander the II, there were no concessions made to liberal or democratic reforms by Alexander III. His reactionary approach allowed for the expansion of the secret police to stamp out any attempt at reform. The powers of the zemstvos were curtailed and whole cities accused of revolutionary acts were put under martial law Alexander III also instituted a policy of “Russification” (aka – Pan-Slavic Movement) insisting on Russian as the native language used in schools. 60% of the population was not Russian, and the measures only served to ignite new opposition to his policies

75 Great Britain Great Britain had faced little revolution by 1848 because it had experienced some reform Economic growth, middle class prosperity and some working class improvements (wages increase 25%) created a stable society

76 Victorian Age Queen Victoria ruled from 1837-1901 Her sense of duty and moral respectability reflected the attitudes of her age She embodied British feelings of national pride during the “Victorian Age”

77 Great Britain By 1871, Britain had a two-party parliamentary system The Reform Act of 1867 gave the right to all men who paid taxes Payment of members of parliament also increased democratic participation Unfortunately, reform failed to solve the problems of the “Irish Question”

78 Reform Act of 1867 Whigs (now called “Liberals”) had expanded the right to vote in 1832 and sought to expand the franchise even further Led by Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli, Tories (now called conservatives) carried through with the legislation in order to win over the newly enfranchised groups The new reform act lowered the monetary tax requirement necessary to vote, enfranchising many urban male workers (# of voters doubled), however the Liberals will benefit from the vote in 1868, and William Gladstone will become Prime Minister

79 Gladstone The liberal administration of Gladstone was responsible for many reforms:  Competitive exams were given for civil service jobs (v. patronage)  Secret ballots for voting  Abolished purchasing of military commssions  Education Act of 1870 – public elementary education for all children

80 Ireland In the British parliament (which had been united with the English Parliament with the Act of Union in 1801) tried to enact land reform to deal with absentee British landlords who exploited their Irish tenants By 1879, reforms had little effect, and the Irish Land League formed. Irish members of Parliament began to articulate the demands of the league which promulgated self government, though not overall independence from Britain (“home rule”) William Gladstone issued a home rule bill in 1886, however it was defeated and the Irish question remained unresolved

81 What About Canada? Treaty of Paris (1763) gave Canada to the British By 1800, most Canadians favored independence 1837 - Rebellion and the cost of maintaining the colonies encouraged the British to give in to Canadian demands 1867 – Dominion of Canada was created, giving Canadians autonomy in domestic affairs, however foreign affairs still remained under the control of the British

82 Spain 1875 – a parliamentary constitution was drafted under King Alfonso XII. Unfortunately, the Liberal and Conservative parties in it only represented the interests of the old aristocrats and the new industrialists (suffrage was limited to those with property) Following their loss of the Philippines and Cuba, and their defeat in the Spanish-American War, there was call for reform by the “Generation of 1898”. To increase their electorate, the Liberals and conservatives did allow some voting reform, but the masses were still unhappy With growing industrialization (and discontent) more people joined anarchist and socialist organizations. After a failed rebellion in 1909, it was clear the church, landowners and military forces loyal to the status quo would not be defeated easily


84 The Jewish Problem – Continued Anti- Semitism While the early 19 th century saw some political doors and opportunities open to Jews, by the end of the century increasing problems and roadblocks Jews became scapegoats for economic problems of the era, such as the closing of small shops due to department stores The term “anti-Semitism” is developed based on Social Darwinism which suggested Jews were of a unique race (?) Some politicians of the era will be elected on anti-Semitic platforms, including Karl Leuger of Vienna In France, the Dreyfus Affair reflected resentment of Jews in all levels of society In Russia, pogroms were systematic attacks against Jews as a tool of “Russification”, and many Jews emigrated

85 Rise of Zionism Disappointment following the by reversal of progress at the end of the 19 th century, many Jews felt the only solution to stop their persecution would be the development of a Jewish state Theodore Herzl, who was horrified at the backlash Jews experienced as a result of the Dreyfus Affair, advocated Zionism Herzl, and others, will form an worldwide organization that will hold their first Congress in Switzerland in 1897

86 Impedes in Women's Progress While many women began to gain access to more jobs and higher education, they found they were still excluded from professional societies within their respective fields Because they will dominate certain professions (nurse, teacher, etc) it will ensure those professions will be poorly paid Some women will organize to address social and political inequalities:  Josephine Butler and the Latish National Association argued successfully against the Contagious Disease Act  “Feminists” begin to organize and demand property and divorce rights  While feminist organizations cooperate world-wide, conflicts over whether to fight for social changes v. the right to vote will persist  Conflicts will also erupt over using peaceful means, promoted by “suffragettes”, or more radical approaches like those of Emmeline Pankhurst of the Women’s Social and Political Union  Still others will advocate that the only way to gain rights was by adopting Socialism

87 Social Darwinism in Europe Herbert Spencer argued in Social Statistics that survival of the fittest was a natural process and that governments should not intervene, justifying the takeover of the weak by the strong Rabid nationalists often argued for a doctrine of war for advancing the race, such as the National Association of Italy The German concept of the “Volk” was propagandized by Houston Stewart Chamberlain to suggest that modern-day Germans were the successors to the Aryan race (who originally created western culture)

88 Social Darwinism Elsewhere In the 1880’s expansion into Asia and Africa was being done by most European countries The “Mad Scramble for Africa” led Bismarck to call the “Berlin Conference” Social Darwinism justified European sovereignty over inferior peoples Rudyard Kipling’s “White Man’s Burden” further exemplified the mood of the era

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