3What is it?????Nationalism:A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one’s country.
4MESS! I. Step Towards Unity -In the early 1800s, German-speaking people lived in a number of kingdoms, Prussia, and the Austrian Hapsburg empire.-Between 1807 and 1812, Napoleon organized many German states into the Confederation of the Rhine.
5-1815 : The Congress of Vienna created the German Confederation, a weak alliance headed by Austria. - 1848: The Frankfurt Assembly demanded a united Germany under Prussia, but Fredrick William IV turned down the offer. NO DICE
6II. Bismarck & German Unity - 1862: Otto von Bismarck, a diplomat from Prussia's Junker class, was named as chancellor.- As Chancellor, Bismarck succeeded in uniting the German states under Prussian rule.- Bismarck was a master of Realpolitik – realistic politics based on the needs of the state.
8-Bismarck built up the army and fought three wars, increasing Prussian power and paving the way for German unity.- Between 1861 & 1871 Otto Von Bismarck annexes or takes over various German States and kingdoms under his rule.
9III. The German Empire Reichstag - 1871: William I of Prussia took the title Kaiser and German nationalists celebrated the birth of the Second Reich.ReichstagA constitution drafted by Bismarck set up a two-house legislature:Reichstag- lower house-male citizens (Elected)Bundesrat- upper house-appointed by rulers (Appointed)
12Background:-After Germany unified in 1871, it became the leader of industry in Europe.-Before unification, many German states already had big factories and well-built railroads.
132. Large workforce. I. German Advantages 1. Had plenty of coal and iron, both needed by industries of the late 1800s.2. Large workforce.
14II. The Iron Chancellor Otto von Bismarck’s Goals: Foreign: (Outside of Germany)Keep France weakBuild alliances with Austria & Russia.Domestic: (Home)Crush the power of the Catholic Church, put allegiance to your nation before the church.(Backfires) Crush communist movement, created programs to better working conditions.a. Health & accident insurance.b. Old-age insurance
15First Order of Business.. III. Kaiser William II1888: William II wanted absolute power.First Order of Business..1. Asked Otto van Bismarck to step DOWN.2. Roll back democratic reforms.GOALS:-Students were taught to obey the Kaiser.-Continued expansion of army, including the development of modern weaponry.-Building the world’s most modern navy-DESIRE to gain overseas colonies
16Political CartoonYou will be drawing a political cartoon that comments on one of the following issues:German Economic DevelopmentBismarck’s policy towards the Catholic Church.Bismarck's policy toward socialists.Bismarck’s resignation.USE PAGES FOR HELP
20I. Obstacles to Italian Unity Regional Differences (Largest Problem): -After the reign of Napoleon, Italy was still divided.Regional Differences (Largest Problem):1. Austria ruled in N. Italy2. Catholic Church controlled central Italy.
21Austrian controlled lands Land controlled by the Catholic Church
22Important Revolutionaries Mazzini-In the 1830s, founded a rebel group called Young Italy.Set up revolutionary republic in Rome.Toppled by the French.-Unsuccessful in leading a revolution to unite all of Italy.-Helps spread nationalist ideas.
23Camillo Cavour Sardinia GOALS: Unite ALL of Italy Prime Minister under King Victor Emmanuel of Sardinia.GOALS:Unite ALL of ItalyWith help of French, get Austria OUT of Northern Italy.Sardinia-As Cavour gained land and respect for Sardinia, more N. Italian states allied with Sardinia
24Giuseppe Garibaldi-Led a force that won Sicily and then moved north.-Meanwhile, Cavour sent troops south-The two armies overran all the Italian states but Venetia and Rome-By 1871, all foreign control of Italian land had ended.
25II. Problems After Unification 2. Catholic church didn’t want to submit to the new Italian government.1. Urban north quarreled with rural south.3. Unrest grew as groups called for social change & male suffrage.