Presentation on theme: "A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one’s country."— Presentation transcript:
A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one’s country.
I. Step Towards Unity -In the early 1800s, German- speaking people lived in a number of kingdoms, Prussia, and the Austrian Hapsburg empire. - Between 1807 and 1812, Napoleon organized many German states into the Confederation of the Rhine.
-1815 : The Congress of Vienna created the German Confederation, a weak alliance headed by Austria : The Frankfurt Assembly demanded a united Germany under Prussia, but Fredrick William IV turned down the offer. NO DICE
II. Bismarck & German Unity : Otto von Bismarck, a diplomat from Prussia's Junker class, was named as chancellor. - As Chancellor, Bismarck succeeded in uniting the German states under Prussian rule. - Bismarck was a master of Realpolitik – realistic politics based on the needs of the state.
-Bismarck built up the army and fought three wars, increasing Prussian power and paving the way for German unity. - Between 1861 & 1871 Otto Von Bismarck annexes or takes over various German States and kingdoms under his rule.
III. The German Empire : William I of Prussia took the title Kaiser and German nationalists celebrated the birth of the Second Reich. A constitution drafted by Bismarck set up a two-house legislature: Reichstag- lower house-male citizens (Elected) Bundesrat- upper house-appointed by rulers (Appointed)
-After Germany unified in 1871, it became the leader of industry in Europe. -Before unification, many German states already had big factories and well-built railroads.
I. German Advantages 1. Had plenty of coal and iron, both needed by industries of the late 1800s. 2. Large workforce.
II. The Iron Chancellor Otto von Bismarck’s Goals: Foreign: (Outside of Germany) 1.Keep France weak 2.Build alliances with Austria & Russia. Foreign: (Outside of Germany) 1.Keep France weak 2.Build alliances with Austria & Russia. Domestic: (Home) 1.Crush the power of the Catholic Church, put allegiance to your nation before the church.(Backfires) 2.Crush communist movement, created programs to better working conditions. a. Health & accident insurance. b. Old-age insurance Domestic: (Home) 1.Crush the power of the Catholic Church, put allegiance to your nation before the church.(Backfires) 2.Crush communist movement, created programs to better working conditions. a. Health & accident insurance. b. Old-age insurance
III. Kaiser William II 1. Asked Otto van Bismarck to step DOWN. 2. Roll back democratic reforms. 1888: William II wanted absolute power. -Students were taught to obey the Kaiser. -Continued expansion of army, including the development of modern weaponry. -Building the world’s most modern navy -DESIRE to gain overseas colonies -Students were taught to obey the Kaiser. -Continued expansion of army, including the development of modern weaponry. -Building the world’s most modern navy -DESIRE to gain overseas colonies
You will be drawing a political cartoon that comments on one of the following issues: 1.German Economic Development 2.Bismarck’s policy towards the Catholic Church. 3.Bismarck's policy toward socialists. 4.Bismarck’s resignation. USE PAGES FOR HELP
-Roman Empire fell in the 400s, Italy split into many kingdoms. -In the 1800s, Napoleon of France combined some of the kingdoms.
I. Obstacles to Italian Unity -After the reign of Napoleon, Italy was still divided. Regional Differences (Largest Problem): 1. Austria ruled in N. Italy 2. Catholic Church controlled central Italy.
Austrian controlled lands Land controlled by the Catholic Church
-In the 1830s, founded a rebel group called Young Italy. -Unsuccessful in leading a revolution to unite all of Italy. -Unsuccessful in leading a revolution to unite all of Italy. -Helps spread nationalist ideas. 1.Set up revolutionary republic in Rome. 2.Toppled by the French.
Prime Minister under King Victor Emmanuel of Sardinia. GOALS: 1.Unite ALL of Italy 2.With help of French, get Austria OUT of Northern Italy. -As Cavour gained land and respect for Sardinia, more N. Italian states allied with Sardinia
-Led a force that won Sicily and then moved north. -Meanwhile, Cavour sent troops south -The two armies overran all the Italian states but Venetia and Rome -By 1871, all foreign control of Italian land had ended.
II. Problems After Unification 1. Urban north quarreled with rural south. 2. Catholic church didn’t want to submit to the new Italian government. 3. Unrest grew as groups called for social change & male suffrage.