Presentation on theme: "HANDBOOK ON GREEN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS"— Presentation transcript:
1HANDBOOK ON GREEN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS Chapter 5: Smart Grid Communications Networks: WirelessTechnologies, Protocols, Issues and StandardsQuang-Dung Ho and Tho Le-NgocECE Dept., McGill University, Montreal, Canada
2Contents Introduction to Smart Grid Smart Grid Communications Network (SGCN)Communications Traffic and Required Quality of Services (QoSs)Wireless Communications Technologies for SGCNNeighbor Area Network (NAN) and Open Research IssuesSmart Grid StandardsSummaryReferences
3Smart Grid a new digital meter on your breaker panel? a wireless network that reads those meters remotely or the data management system that processes the information?some solar panels on the roof?a load-controller on the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system?Smart Grid is the inclusion of all of these things
4Smart Grid“an automated, widely distributed energy delivery network characterized by a two-way flow of electricity and information, capable of monitoring and responding to changes in everything from power plants to customer preferences to individual appliances” “the electricity delivery system (from point of generation to point of consumption) integrated with communications and information technology for enhanced grid operations, customer services, and environmental benefits” (Funding for Smart GriFunding Grid Activities, US Department of Energy, 2009, link:
5Smart Grid Can Identify and resolve faults on electricity grid Automatically self-heal the gridMonitor power quality and manage voltageIdentify devices or subsystems that require maintenanceHelp consumers optimize their individual electricity consumption (minimize their bills)Enable the use of smart appliances that can be programmed to run on off-peak power
6SG Comm. Network (SGCN)The key to achieving these potential benefits of SG is to successful build up Smart Grid Communications Network (SGCN) that can support all identified SG functionalitiesAdvanced Metering Infrastructure(AMI),Demand Response (DR),Electric Vehicles (EVs),Wide-Area Situational Awareness (WASA),distributed energy resources and storage,distribution grid management, etc.
7(b) Communications Layer SG Comm. Network (SGCN)MicrogridSmartMeterSubstationSubstationCustomerNon-renewable EnegyElectric VehicleMicrogridWind EnegySolar EnegyPower GenerationPower Transmission GridPower Distribution GridPower Consumption(a) Power System LayerWirelessBackhaulControl CenterConcentratorSmartHomeDeviceBaseStationWired BackhaulNetworkSmartMeterData AggregationPoint (DAP)Wide Area Network (WAN)Neighbor Area Network (NAN)Home Area Network (HAN)(b) Communications LayerThe overall layered architecture of SG
8Traffic and Required QoSs Traffic TypesDescriptionBandwidthLatencyAMI NetworksMeter ReadsMeters report energy consumption (Ex: the 15-min interval reads are usually transferred every 4 hours)Up to 10kbps2 to 10secDemand Response (DR)Utilities to communicate with customer devices to allow customers to reduce or shift their power use during peak demand periodsLow500ms ~ minConnects and DisconnectsConnects/disconnect customers to/from the gridA few 100ms, a few minutesSubstation NetworksSynchrophasorThe major primary measurement technologies deployed for Wide-Area Situational Awareness (WASA)A few 100kbps20ms to 200msSubstation SCADA4-sec interval polling by the master to all the intelligent electronic devices inside the substation10 to 30kbps2 ~ 4secInter-substation CommunicationsEmerging applications such as DER might warrant GOOSE communications outside substation--12ms ~ 20msSurveillanceVideo site surveillanceA few MbpsA few secDistribution NetworkFault Location, Isolation and Restoration (FLIR)To control protection/restoration circuitsA few 100msOptimizationvolt/var optimization and power quality optimization on distribution networks2 ~ 5Mbps25 ~ 100msWorkforce AccessProvides expert video, voice access to field workers250kbps150msAsset ManagementFor predictively and pro-actively gathering and analyzing non-operational data for potential asset failuresMicrogidProtectionTo response to faults, isolate them and ensure loads are not affected100ms ~ 10secOperation OptimizationMonitors and controls the operations of the whole MG in order to optimize the power exchanged between the MG and the main grid100ms ~ min
9Wireless Comm. Technologies TechnologyAdvantageDisadvantageApplicationZigbee (IEEE , ZigBee Alliance)Low-cost, low power, wireless mesh standard for wireless home area networks (WHANs) or wireless personal area networks (WPANs)Very low cost - inexpensive consumer devices; Low power consumption - years of battery life; Self- organizing, secure, and reliable mesh network; Network can support a large number of users; Smart energy profile for HANs is availableVery short range; Does not penetrate structures well; Low data rates; Developers must join ZigBee AllianceHANs for energy management and monitoring; Unlikely to be used in NANsWi-Fi (IEEE b/g/n)Indoor wireless local area networks (WLANs), wireless mesh networksLow-cost chip sets - inexpensive consumer devices; Widespread use and expertise; Low-cost application development; Stable and mature standardsDoes not penetrate cement buildings or basements; Small coverage and short distances limit wide spread use; Security issues with multiple networks operating in same locationsCould be used for HANs, MGANs, and NANs3G Cellular (UMTS, CDMA2000, EV-DO, EDGE)Wide-area wireless networks for voice, video, and data services in a mobile environmentExpensive infrastructure already widely deployed, stable and mature; Well standardized; Equipment prices keep dropping; Readily available expertise in deployments; Cellular chipset very inexpensive; Large selection of vendors and service providersUtility must rent the infrastructure from a cellular carrier for a monthly access fee; Utility does not own infrastructure; Technology is in the transition phase to LTE deployment; Public cellular networks not sufficiently stable/secure for mission critical/utility applications; Not well-suited for large data/high bandwidth applicationsAMI Backhaul, Field Area Network (FAN)LTEEnhancements to 3G Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) mobile networking, providing for enhanced multimedia servicesLow latency, high capacity; Fully integrated with 3GGP, compatible with earlier 3GPP releases; Full mobility for enhanced multimedia services; Carrier preferred protocol; Low power consumptionUtility must rent the infrastructure from a cellular carrier for a monthly access fee; Utility does not own infrastructure; Not readily available in many markets/still in testing phases in others; Equipment cost high; Vendor differentiation still unclear; Lack of expertise in designing LTE networks; Utilities’ access to spectrumAMI Backhaul, SCADA Backhaul, Demand Response, FAN, Video SurveillanceWiMAX (IEEE )Wireless metropolitan area network (MAN) providing high-speed fixed/mobile Internet accessEfficient backhaul of data – aggregating 100’s access points; QoS supports service assurance; Battery-backup improves reliability and security; Simple, scalable network rollout and customer-premises equipment (CPE) attachment; Faster speeds than 3G cellular; Large variety of CPE and gateway/ base station designsLimited access to spectrum licenses in the US; Trade off between higher bit rates over longer distances; Asymmetrical up and down link speeds; User shared bandwidth; Competing against future 4G cellular
10Neighbor Area Network (NAN) Gathers a huge volume of various types of data and distributes important control signals from and to millions of devices installed at customer premisesThe most critical segment that connects utilities and customers in order to enable primarily important SG applications
11Characteristics of NAN To support a huge number of devices that distribute over large geographical areasMust be scalable to network size and self-configurableHeterogeneous and location-awareLink condition and thus network connectivity are time-varying due to multipath fading, surrounding environment, harsh weather, electricity power outage, etc.
12Characteristics of NAN Deployed outdoor, thus must be robust to node and link failuresCarries different types of traffic that require a wide range of QoSsNeeds QoS awareness and provisioningMainly supports Multi-Point-to-Point (MP2P) and Point-to-Multiple-Point (P2MP) trafficVery vulnerable to privacy and security
13Wireless Routing Overview Routing protocols for wireless networksSimpleMessage implosion, resource-blind, mainly for P2PFlooding-basedSimple, exploits location infor.Loops, distance not represents link qualityLocation-basedAdapts well to link quality, supports MP2P and P2MP, supports QoSsComplicated, needs more signalingsSelf-organizingResource-efficient, supports securityComplicated, less dynamic to link conditionsCluster-based
14Candidate Routing Protocols for NAN Greedy Geographic routing (GEO) Routing Protocol for Low Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) IEEE s Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol (HWMP) 
15Open Issues in NAN Downlink Communications QoS Differentiation and ProvisioningNetwork Self-healingMulticastingCluster-based RoutingOptimal Network Design
16Smart Grid StandardsInter-operability: “the ability of two or more systems or components to exchange information and to use the information that has been exchanged”The overall SG system is lacking widely accepted standards
17Smart Grid Standards Standards Development Organizations (SDOs): National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),American National Standards Institute (ANSI),International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC),Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE),International Organization for Standardization (ISO), International Telecommunication Union (ITU),etc.Alliances:ZigBee Alliance, Wi-Fi Alliance, HomePlug Powerline Alliance, Z-Wave Alliance, etc.
18NIST Activities“primary responsibility to coordinate development of a framework that includes protocols and model standards for information management to achieve inter-operability of smart grid devices and systems ...” (Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, Title XIII, Section 1305)Specific activities:(i) identifying existing applicable standards(ii) addressing and solving gaps where a standard extension or new standard is needed and(iii) identifying overlaps where multiple standards address some common information
19NIST ActivitiesNIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Inter-operability Standards, Release 1.0 25 relevant standards (and additional 50 standards for further review)NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Inter-operability Standards, Release 2.0 34 reviewed standards (and additional 62 standards for further review)
20NIST ActivitiesPriority Action Plans (PAPs), each addresses one of the following situations:a gap exists, where a standard extension or new standard is needed;an overlap exists, where two complementary standards address some information that is in common but different for the same scope of application
22Representative SG Standards WiMAX3G/4GCellularWi-FiIEEE P2030IEC 61850DNP3SONETSubstationWide Area NetworkIECIEC 61850DNP3CIMControl centerWind farmSUNWi-Fi3G/4G CellularNeighbor Area NetworkIEEE 1547BACnetOpenADRDRBizNetIECSAE J2293SAE J2836SAE J2847C12.18C12.19C12.22M-BusDistributed EnergyResourcesCommercial userZigbeeWi-FiSmartmeterResidential userPHEVHome Area Network
23SummaryThis chapter gives an insight view of the Smart Grid Communications Network (SGCN) by presentingits layered architecture,typical types of traffic that it may carry and associated quality of service requirements,as well as candidate wireless communications technologies that can be employed for its implementationNetworking issues that the Neighbor Area Network (NAN) segment of SGCN needs to tackle are highlighted byexploring characteristics and requirements of this network segmentidentifying important gaps that existing wireless routing protocols need to cover for their applicability into NANThis chapter also reviews a number of standards for smart grid inter-operability