Presentation on theme: "HANDBOOK ON GREEN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS"— Presentation transcript:
1 HANDBOOK ON GREEN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS Chapter 26: Survey on Smart Grid Communications: From an Architecture Overview to Standardization Activities1Periklis Chatzimisios, 2Dimitrios G. Stratogiannis, 2Georgios I. Tsiropoulos and 1Giwrgos Stavrou1Alexander TEI of Thessaloniki2 National Technical University of Athens
2 Outline Introduction Smart Grid Definition Smart Grid Description Participating EntitiesPower PartsSmart Grid AnalysisLayers of AnalysisSmart Grid Capabilities and Features
3 IntroductionThe convergence of the existing power delivery infrastructure with ICT will lead to:An innovative energy distribution gridUpgrade of the existing power grid by integrating a high speed, reliable, secure data communication network.New capabilities and significant advantagesVariety of applications and servicesFields of ImpactAutomation facilitiesAdvanced data collectionBroadband telecommunicationsIntelligent appliance interoperability and controlSecurity and SurveillanceDistributed power generationEffective integration of renewables and diversified production mixEnvironmental Policies
4 Smart Grid DefinitionThe next generation power grid is based on the evolution of communication networking infrastructure integrated in the electrical grid enhancing data exchange and automated management in power systems.The communication network should be able to meet the specifications and needs of the power grid and system communications providing advantages such asflexibility,resilience,sustainability,scalability,cost-effectiveness,interoperability andinteraction of the participating entities,Thus, the name Smart Grid is entitled to the next generation power distribution network
6 Smart Grid Analysis Physical Power Layer Transport Control Layer Generation system: Power generation in plantsTransmission: Delivers power from plants to substationsDistribution: Delivers power from substations to the consumersTransport Control LayerIntegrated high speed communication networkSupports secure data collection and transportPermits the interaction and communication among entities involvedAdvanced sensing and measurement equipmentApplication LayerIncludes all the services provided to end users such as automated metering, broadband access etc.
8 Smart Grid Capabilities Key Characteristics:Advanced Interoperability among entities and parts of power grid.Improved Grid management and optimized operationImproved Situational Awareness and Communications in the power gridAdvanced Services for End-UsersCarbon emissions reduction supporting environmental protection efforts – green specifications
9 Smart Grid Features (1)Improved Power Grid management and optimized operationIntegration of distributed generation and renewables in a full scale network.Support of diversified energy production mix according to environmental policiesDecision Making regarding the Grid Operation taking into account operational parameters from throughout the networkReal-time Avoidance Mechanism for power demand exceedance and power failures .
10 Smart Grid Features (2) Advanced Interoperability in Smart Grid Interconnection among all participating entities, establishing communication and cooperation.Installation and support of different kinds of generation and storage equipment supporting decentralized productionCoordination between providers and consumers to optimize power utilization.Dynamic pricing able to be adjustable according to current supply and demand.Improved corporate asset management by integrated control equipment
11 Smart Grid Features (3)Improved Situational Awareness and CommunicationsData collection regarding the operational conditions of the power grid entities.Advanced sensing equipmentMonitor and control by exchanging information among entities involved in power grid processes.Prediction / Detection faults in power grid improving reliability and avoiding service disruption.Immediate response on power demand variations.
12 Smart Grid Features (4) Advanced Services for Users Automated Metering Infrastructure allowing real-time measurements and collection of important data via smart metersDynamic pricing aiming at keeping competent prices in favor of customers.Smart Home AppliancesAdvanced communication networks and facilities for broadband access to all users via BPL implementation
13 General State of Smart Grid Application Main Concept: Evolution a network into a smart grid+ offer services with high quality+ increased consistency- difficult to be realizedDifficultiestechnical challengesconceal the potential opportunities of a smart grid to customers
14 Parameters of Economic Market and Social Aspects Power supply companiesfocused mainly on the wholesale market of powerpower stock exchangeDensely populated VS sparsely populated regionsmarket is less effectivehigh transportation costlimited number ofcompetitive supplierseconomically offersThe state funds partially or in whole the investmentThe power market cannot operate efficiently
15 Automated Metering Description A Smart Grid system is expected to utilize smart meters at any customer locationThese advanced meters will establish a two way communication measuring power consumption and collecting crucial information such as:voltage and current monitoringcurrent loadwaveform recordingspower requirementsvariations under peak conditions
16 Automated Metering in Energy Production Smart meters can measure electricity usage and collect data for the service provider.Significant role in the decentralized electricity productionintegration of renewable energy production units since they will measure the part of the generated energy consumed by the household and the part returned to the main networkDistribution automation abilities in the areas of protection and switching
17 Pricing and Automated Metering The two main factors that affect billing arethe power consumptionthe market priceThree pricing techniques:time of use where certain constant prices are usedcritical peak pricing where prices are altered only on power peaks.real time pricing where price differentiation according to the day-of or day-ahead cost of power is provided to the service provider
18 Communications for Smart Metering Smart meters at any customer locationAccess point data will be forwarded to the control section of the power grid.Various wireless networking technologies such as IEEE WLANs, 3G UMTS, IEEE WiMAX can be applied.BPL Communications can be a very promising solution for smart grid since there will be no charging for data transmission and it will minimize dependence from networking technologies.IP-based system that will transfer all the data collectedANSI C12.22 standardSession Initiation Protocol (SIP)
20 Smart Grid communications infrastructure (1) The Smart Grid communications infrastructure is composed of:“core” (or backbone)“middle-mile” (or backhaul)“last-mile” (or access, distribution)“homes” and “premises”
21 Smart Grid communications infrastructure (2) The “core” network supports the connection between numerous substations and utilities’ headquarters. The backbone network requires high capacity and bandwidth availability and is usually built on optical fibers.The “middle-mile”, referred as Wide Area Network (WAN), connects the data concentrators in AMI with substation/distribution automation and control centers associated with utilities’ operation. This sector needs to provide broadband media as well as easy and cost-effective network installation.
22 Smart Grid communications infrastructure (3) The “last-mile” covers the areas of Neighborhood Area Network (NAN) and AMI since it is responsible for both the data transport and collection from smart meters to concentrators. There are many available wired and wireless technologies that must provision broadband speed and security.The “premises” network supports Home Area Network (HAN) dedicated to effectively manage the on-demand power requirements of the end- users and associated building automation. It is predominantly based on the IEEE , IEEE and PLC standards.
23 Standards and Interoperability (1) Interoperability can be defined as “the ability of two or more systems or components to exchange information, to use the information that has been exchanged and to work cooperatively to perform a task”.Smart Grid includes technology deployments that must connect large numbers of smart devices and systems involving hardware and software.Interoperability actually enables integration, effective cooperation as well as two-way communication among the many interconnected elements of the electric power grid.
24 Standards and Interoperability (2) To achieve interoperability, internationally recognized communication and interface standards should be developed by Standards Development Organizations (SDOs) and Specification Setting Organizations (SSOs).
25 Standards and Interoperability (3) Interoperability standards include some of the following:Recognition of the need for a standard in a particular areaInvolvement of users to develop the business scenarios and use cases that drive the requirements for the standardReview of existing standards in order to determine if they meet or not the needFinalization of the standard and full implementation of the standard by vendorsSignificant interoperability testing of the standard by different vendors under different scenariosAmending or updating the standard in order to reflect findings during the interoperability tests
26 Standardization activities around the world (1) The main standardization bodies for Smart Grid are:Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC)American National Standards Institute (ANSI)State Grid Corporation of China (SGCC)UCA International Users Group (UCAIug)Vendor CollaborationsHomePlug Powerline Alliance (www.homeplug.org)Z-Wave Alliance (www.z-wavealliance.org)ZigBee Alliance (www.zigbee.org)
27 Standardization activities around the world (2) Other major Smart Grid standardization roadmaps and studies :German Standardization Roadmap E-Energy / Smart GridInternational Telecommunication Union (ITU-T) Smart Grid Focus GroupJapanese Industrial Standards Committee (JISC) roadmap to international standardization for smart gridKorea’s Smart Grid Roadmap 2030 from the Ministry of Knowledge Economy (MKE)CIGRE D2.24Microsoft SERA
28 NIST Priority Action Plans (PAPs) (1) Priority Action Plan (PAP)Standard(s) or Guideline(s)PAP 0 - Meter Upgradeability StandardNEMA Meter Upgradeability StandardPAP 1 - Role of IP in the Smart GridInformational IETF RFCPAP 2 - Wireless Communications for the Smart GridIEEE 802.x, 3GPP,3GPP2, ATIS, TIAPAP 3 - Common Price Communication ModelOASIS EMIX, ZigBee SEP 2, NAESBPAP 4 - Common Scheduling MechanismOASIS WS-CalendarPAP 5 - Standard Meter Data ProfilesAEIC V2.0 Meter Guidelines (addressing use of ANSI C12)PAP 6 - Common Semantic Model for Meter Data TablesANSI C , MultiSpeak V4, IECPAP 7 - Electric Storage Interconnection GuidelinesIEEE , IEEE , IEEE , IEC , ZigBee SEP 2PAP 8 - CIM for Distribution Grid ManagementIEC , IEC , IEC ,14, MultiSpeak V4, IEEE 1547PAP 9 - Standard DR and DER SignalsNAESB WEQ015, OASIS EMIX, OpenADR, ZigBee SEP 2PAP 10 - Standard Energy Usage InformationNAESB Energy Usage Information, OpenADE, ZigBee SEP 2, IEC , ASHRAE SPC 201P
29 NIST Priority Action Plans (PAPs) (2) Priority Action Plan (PAP)Standard(s) or Guideline(s)PAP 11 - Common Object Models for Electric TransportationZigBee SEP 2, SAE J1772, SAE J2836/1-3 , SAE J2847/1-3, ISO/IEC ,3, SAE J2931, IEEE P2030-2, IEC 62196PAP 12 - IEC Objects/DNP3 MappingIEC , Mapping DNP to IEC 61850, DNP3 (IEEE 1815)PAP 13 - Time Synchronization, IEC Objects/IEEE C HarmonizationIEC , IEEE C37.118, IEEE C37.238, Mapping IEEE C to IEC 61850, IECPAP 14 - Transmission and Distribution Power Systems Model MappingIEC , MultiSpeak V4PAP 15 - Harmonize Power Line Carrier Standards for Appliance Communications in the HomeDNP3 (IEEE 1815), HomePlug AV, HomePlug C&C, IEEE P1901 and P1901.2, ISO/IEC , G.9960 (G.hn/PHY), G.9961 (G.hn/DLL), G.9972 (G.cx), G.hnem, ISO/IEC , ISO/IEC 14543, ENPAP 16 - Wind Plant CommunicationsIECPAP 17 - Facility Smart Grid Information StandardNew Facility Smart Grid Information Standard ASHRAE SPC 201PPAP 18 - SEP 1.x to SEP 2 Transition and CoexistenceZigbee
30 Conclusions (1)Smart Grids have received considerable attention worldwide in recent years.A number of organizations, standard bodies and countries worldwide have launched significant efforts to encourage the development of the Smart Grid.The development and use of international standards is an essential step towards this direction.Interoperability is the key to the Smart Grid, and standards are the key to interoperability.
31 Conclusions (2)There are various standardization activities by the key players involved in the standardization process.Many standards and rules for Smart Grid have been already put in place.Standardization activities will offer significant advantages to power grid parts, to energy providers, policy makers, regulation authorities, enterprises and customers.