Presentation on theme: "1 Chapter 26: Survey on Smart Grid Communications: From an Architecture Overview to Standardization Activities 1 Periklis Chatzimisios, 2 Dimitrios G."— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 26: Survey on Smart Grid Communications: From an Architecture Overview to Standardization Activities 1 Periklis Chatzimisios, 2 Dimitrios G. Stratogiannis, 2 Georgios I. Tsiropoulos and 1 Giwrgos Stavrou 1 Alexander TEI of Thessaloniki 2 National Technical University of Athens HANDBOOK ON GREEN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
2 Outline Introduction Smart Grid Definition Smart Grid Description Participating Entities Power Parts Smart Grid Analysis Layers of Analysis Smart Grid Capabilities and Features
3 Introduction The convergence of the existing power delivery infrastructure with ICT will lead to: An innovative energy distribution grid Upgrade of the existing power grid by integrating a high speed, reliable, secure data communication network. New capabilities and significant advantages Variety of applications and services Fields of Impact Automation facilities Advanced data collection Broadband telecommunications Intelligent appliance interoperability and control Security and Surveillance Distributed power generation Effective integration of renewables and diversified production mix Environmental Policies
4 Smart Grid Definition The next generation power grid is based on the evolution of communication networking infrastructure integrated in the electrical grid enhancing data exchange and automated management in power systems. The communication network should be able to meet the specifications and needs of the power grid and system communications providing advantages such as flexibility, resilience, sustainability, scalability, cost-effectiveness, interoperability and interaction of the participating entities, Thus, the name Smart Grid is entitled to the next generation power distribution network
5 Smart Grid Description Participating Entities: energy providers policy makers regulation authorities enterprises Power Grid Parts Generation Transmission Distribution (Substations) Customers
6 Smart Grid Analysis Physical Power Layer Generation system: Power generation in plants Transmission: Delivers power from plants to substations Distribution: Delivers power from substations to the consumers Transport Control Layer Integrated high speed communication network Supports secure data collection and transport Permits the interaction and communication among entities involved Advanced sensing and measurement equipment Application Layer Includes all the services provided to end users such as automated metering, broadband access etc.
7 Smart Grid
8 Smart Grid Capabilities Key Characteristics: Advanced Interoperability among entities and parts of power grid. Improved Grid management and optimized operation Improved Situational Awareness and Communications in the power grid Advanced Services for End- Users Carbon emissions reduction supporting environmental protection efforts – green specifications
9 Smart Grid Features (1) Improved Power Grid management and optimized operation Integration of distributed generation and renewables in a full scale network. Support of diversified energy production mix according to environmental policies Decision Making regarding the Grid Operation taking into account operational parameters from throughout the network Real-time Avoidance Mechanism for power demand exceedance and power failures.
10 Smart Grid Features (2) Advanced Interoperability in Smart Grid Interconnection among all participating entities, establishing communication and cooperation. Installation and support of different kinds of generation and storage equipment supporting decentralized production Coordination between providers and consumers to optimize power utilization. Dynamic pricing able to be adjustable according to current supply and demand. Improved corporate asset management by integrated control equipment
11 Smart Grid Features (3) Improved Situational Awareness and Communications Data collection regarding the operational conditions of the power grid entities. Advanced sensing equipment Monitor and control by exchanging information among entities involved in power grid processes. Prediction / Detection faults in power grid improving reliability and avoiding service disruption. Immediate response on power demand variations.
12 Smart Grid Features (4) Advanced Services for Users Automated Metering Infrastructure allowing real-time measurements and collection of important data via smart meters Dynamic pricing aiming at keeping competent prices in favor of customers. Smart Home Appliances Advanced communication networks and facilities for broadband access to all users via BPL implementation
13 General State of Smart Grid Application Main Concept: Evolution a network into a smart grid + offer services with high quality + increased consistency - difficult to be realized Difficulties technical challenges conceal the potential opportunities of a smart grid to customers
14 Parameters of Economic Market and Social Aspects Power supply companies focused mainly on the wholesale market of power power stock exchange Densely populated VS sparsely populated regions market is less effective high transportation cost limited number of competitive supplierscompetitive suppliers economically offerseconomically offers The state funds partially or in whole the investment The power market cannot operate efficiently
15 Automated Metering Description A Smart Grid system is expected to utilize smart meters at any customer location These advanced meters will establish a two way communication measuring power consumption and collecting crucial information such as: voltage and current monitoring current load waveform recordings power requirements variations under peak conditions
16 Automated Metering in Energy Production Smart meters can measure electricity usage and collect data for the service provider. Significant role in the decentralized electricity production integration of renewable energy production units since they will measure the part of the generated energy consumed by the household and the part returned to the main network Distribution automation abilities in the areas of protection and switching
17 Pricing and Automated Metering The two main factors that affect billing are the power consumption the market price Three pricing techniques: time of use where certain constant prices are used critical peak pricing where prices are altered only on power peaks. real time pricing where price differentiation according to the day-of or day-ahead cost of power is provided to the service provider
18 Communications for Smart Metering Smart meters at any customer location Access point data will be forwarded to the control section of the power grid. Various wireless networking technologies such as IEEE WLANs, 3G UMTS, IEEE WiMAX can be applied. BPL Communications can be a very promising solution for smart grid since there will be no charging for data transmission and it will minimize dependence from networking technologies. IP-based system that will transfer all the data collected ANSI C12.22 standard Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
19 A High Level Overview of Smart Grid
20 Smart Grid communications infrastructure (1) The Smart Grid communications infrastructure is composed of: core (or backbone) middle-mile (or backhaul) last-mile (or access, distribution) homes and premises
21 Smart Grid communications infrastructure (2) The core network supports the connection between numerous substations and utilities headquarters. The backbone network requires high capacity and bandwidth availability and is usually built on optical fibers. The middle-mile, referred as Wide Area Network (WAN), connects the data concentrators in AMI with substation/distribution automation and control centers associated with utilities operation. This sector needs to provide broadband media as well as easy and cost-effective network installation.
22 Smart Grid communications infrastructure (3) The last-mile covers the areas of Neighborhood Area Network (NAN) and AMI since it is responsible for both the data transport and collection from smart meters to concentrators. There are many available wired and wireless technologies that must provision broadband speed and security. The premises network supports Home Area Network (HAN) dedicated to effectively manage the on-demand power requirements of the end- users and associated building automation. It is predominantly based on the IEEE , IEEE and PLC standards.
23 Standards and Interoperability (1) Interoperability can be defined as the ability of two or more systems or components to exchange information, to use the information that has been exchanged and to work cooperatively to perform a task. Smart Grid includes technology deployments that must connect large numbers of smart devices and systems involving hardware and software. Interoperability actually enables integration, effective cooperation as well as two-way communication among the many interconnected elements of the electric power grid.
24 Standards and Interoperability (2) To achieve interoperability, internationally recognized communication and interface standards should be developed by Standards Development Organizations (SDOs) and Specification Setting Organizations (SSOs).
25 Standards and Interoperability (3) Interoperability standards include some of the following: Recognition of the need for a standard in a particular area Involvement of users to develop the business scenarios and use cases that drive the requirements for the standard Review of existing standards in order to determine if they meet or not the need Finalization of the standard and full implementation of the standard by vendors Significant interoperability testing of the standard by different vendors under different scenarios Amending or updating the standard in order to reflect findings during the interoperability tests
26 Standardization activities around the world (1) The main standardization bodies for Smart Grid are: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC) American National Standards Institute (ANSI) State Grid Corporation of China (SGCC) UCA International Users Group (UCAIug) Vendor Collaborations HomePlug Powerline Alliance (www.homeplug.org) Z-Wave Alliance (www.z-wavealliance.org) ZigBee Alliance (www.zigbee.org)
27 Standardization activities around the world (2) Other major Smart Grid standardization roadmaps and studies : German Standardization Roadmap E-Energy / Smart Grid International Telecommunication Union (ITU-T) Smart Grid Focus Group Japanese Industrial Standards Committee (JISC) roadmap to international standardization for smart grid Koreas Smart Grid Roadmap 2030 from the Ministry of Knowledge Economy (MKE) CIGRE D2.24 Microsoft SERA
28 NIST Priority Action Plans (PAPs) (1) Priority Action Plan (PAP)Standard(s) or Guideline(s) PAP 0 - Meter Upgradeability StandardNEMA Meter Upgradeability Standard PAP 1 - Role of IP in the Smart GridInformational IETF RFC PAP 2 - Wireless Communications for the Smart Grid IEEE 802.x, 3GPP,3GPP2, ATIS, TIA PAP 3 - Common Price Communication Model OASIS EMIX, ZigBee SEP 2, NAESB PAP 4 - Common Scheduling MechanismOASIS WS-Calendar PAP 5 - Standard Meter Data Profiles AEIC V2.0 Meter Guidelines (addressing use of ANSI C12) PAP 6 - Common Semantic Model for Meter Data Tables ANSI C , MultiSpeak V4, IEC PAP 7 - Electric Storage Interconnection Guidelines IEEE , IEEE , IEEE , IEC , ZigBee SEP 2 PAP 8 - CIM for Distribution Grid Management IEC , IEC , IEC ,14, MultiSpeak V4, IEEE 1547 PAP 9 - Standard DR and DER Signals NAESB WEQ015, OASIS EMIX, OpenADR, ZigBee SEP 2 PAP 10 - Standard Energy Usage Information NAESB Energy Usage Information, OpenADE, ZigBee SEP 2, IEC , ASHRAE SPC 201P
29 NIST Priority Action Plans (PAPs) (2) Priority Action Plan (PAP)Standard(s) or Guideline(s) PAP 11 - Common Object Models for Electric Transportation ZigBee SEP 2, SAE J1772, SAE J2836/1-3, SAE J2847/1-3, ISO/IEC ,3, SAE J2931, IEEE P2030-2, IEC PAP 12 - IEC Objects/DNP3 Mapping IEC , Mapping DNP to IEC 61850, DNP3 (IEEE 1815) PAP 13 - Time Synchronization, IEC Objects/IEEE C Harmonization IEC , IEEE C37.118, IEEE C37.238, Mapping IEEE C to IEC 61850, IEC PAP 14 - Transmission and Distribution Power Systems Model Mapping IEC , MultiSpeak V4 PAP 15 - Harmonize Power Line Carrier Standards for Appliance Communications in the Home DNP3 (IEEE 1815), HomePlug AV, HomePlug C&C, IEEE P1901 and P1901.2, ISO/IEC , G.9960 (G.hn/PHY), G.9961 (G.hn/DLL), G.9972 (G.cx), G.hnem, ISO/IEC , ISO/IEC 14543, EN PAP 16 - Wind Plant CommunicationsIEC PAP 17 - Facility Smart Grid Information Standard New Facility Smart Grid Information Standard ASHRAE SPC 201P PAP 18 - SEP 1.x to SEP 2 Transition and Coexistence Zigbee
30 Conclusions (1) Smart Grids have received considerable attention worldwide in recent years. A number of organizations, standard bodies and countries worldwide have launched significant efforts to encourage the development of the Smart Grid. The development and use of international standards is an essential step towards this direction. Interoperability is the key to the Smart Grid, and standards are the key to interoperability.
31 Conclusions (2) There are various standardization activities by the key players involved in the standardization process. Many standards and rules for Smart Grid have been already put in place. Standardization activities will offer significant advantages to power grid parts, to energy providers, policy makers, regulation authorities, enterprises and customers.