# Principles & Applications

## Presentation on theme: "Principles & Applications"— Presentation transcript:

Principles & Applications

INTRODUCTION Combinational vs. Sequential Logic Circuits R-S Flip-flop
Clocked R-S Flip-flop D Flip-flop J-K Flip-flop Latches (simple memory devices) Triggering of flip-flops Schmitt triggered device

Logic Circuits Logic circuits are classified into two groups:
Combinational Logic Circuits Basic building blocks include: Sequential Logic Circuits Basic building blocks include FLIP-FLOPS:

QUIZ 1. Basic building blocks for __________ (combinational, sequential) logic circuits include logic gates (such as NOT, AND, and OR). combinational 2. Basic building blocks for sequential logic circuits include various flip-flops. (True or False) True 3. A flip-flop is an example of a device used in __________ (combinational, sequential) logic circuits. sequential

R-S Flip-Flop Symbols: Truth Table: Mode of Operation Inputs Outputs
Set Reset S R Q Normal Comple-mentary FF Truth Table: Mode of Operation Inputs Outputs S R Q Q’ Prohibited Set Reset Hold Q Q’ NOTE: Active-LOW inputs

QUIZ What is the mode of operation of the R-S flip-flop (set, reset or hold)? What is the output at Q from the R-S flip-flop (active LOW inputs)? Mode of operation = ? ? L H High Set Mode of operation = ? ? H High Hold Mode of operation = ? ? H L Low Reset

Clocked R-S Flip-Flop Symbols: Truth Table:
Set Reset S R Q Normal Comple-mentary FF Clock CLK Truth Table: Mode of operation Inputs Outputs Clk S R Q Q’ Hold pulse no change Reset pulse Set pulse Prohibited NOTE: Active-High inputs

QUIZ High Set High Hold Low Reset
What is the mode of operation of the clocked R-S flip-flop (set, reset, hold)? What is the output at Q from the clocked R-S flip-flop (active HIGH inputs)? H ^ L Mode of operation = ? ? High Set L ^ Mode of operation = ? ? High Hold L ^ H Mode of operation = ? ? Low Reset

D Flip-Flop Symbol: Truth Table: (with asynchronous PS & CLR)
Mode of Operation Inputs Outputs PS CLR CLK D Q Q’ Asynchronous set X X Asynchronous reset X X Prohibited X X Set ^ Reset ^ X = irrelevant ^ = L-to-H transition of the clock pulse

QUIZ What is the mode of operation of the D flip-flop?
What is the output at Q from the D flip-flop? L H ^ ? Mode of operation = ? High Asynchronous Set H L ^ ? Mode of operation = ? Low Reset H ^ ? Mode of operation = ? High Set

J-K Flip-Flop Symbol: Truth Table: Mode of Operation Inputs Outputs
PS Clr Clk J K Q Q’ Asynchronous set x x x Asynchronous reset x x x Prohibited x x x Hold ^ no change Reset ^ Set ^ Toggle ^ opposite x = Irrelevant ^ = H-to-L transition of clock pulse

QUIZ What is the mode of operation of the J-K flip-flop?
What is the output at Q from the J-K flip-flop? L ^ H Mode of operation = ? ? H ^ Mode of operation = ? ? High High Preset Toggle H ^ Mode of operation = ? ? Mode of operation = ? H ^ ? Low Low Toggle Toggle Mode of operation = ? H L ^ ? H ^ L Mode of operation = ? ? Low Low Reset Clear

Latch A fundamental digital storage device
The act of storing data for a time, such as “to latch” An R-S flip-flop is an example of a latch A D flip-flop can perform as a latch In IC form (examples: 4-bit, 8-bit, 9-bit, 10 bit) Is commonly imbedded in complex ICs

QUIZ 1. A fundamental digital storage device is sometime called a(n) ___ (gate, latch). latch 2. The job of a latch can be performed by a(n) ___ (gate, D-flip-flop). D-flip-flop 3. We say that “to latch” is the act of storing data for a time. (True or False) True 4. Latches are commonly imbedded in more complex ICs and serve as temporary memory devices. (True or False) True

Triggering of Flip-Flops
Level-triggering is the transfer of data from input to output of a flip-flop anytime the clock pulse is HIGH. Edge-triggering is the transfer of data from input to output of a flip-flop on the rising edge (L-to-H) or falling edge (H-to-L) of the clock pulse. Edge triggering may be either positive-edge (L-to-H) or negative-edge (H-to-L). Master-slave triggering is an older technique using the whole clock pulse but think of a master-slave flip-flop as having negative-edge triggering. Negative-edge triggering Positive-edge triggering H L time Level triggering

QUIZ 1. If a flip-flop triggers on the L-to-H transition of the clock pulse (see A) it is called a __________ (level, positive-edge) triggered device. positive-edge 2. If a flip-flop triggers on the H-to-L transition of the clock pulse (see B) it is called a __________ (level, negative-edge) triggered device. negative-edge 3. If a flip-flop triggers while the clock pulse is HIGH (see C) it is called a __________ (level, positive-edge) triggered device. level C B A H L time

Schmitt Trigger Operation
Positive-going threshold Negative-going threshold Output Input Schmitt trigger device “squares” up input

QUIZ 1. The symbol at the lower right is that of a __________ (magneto-optical, Schmitt trigger) inverter. Schmitt trigger 2. If the input signal to the Schmitt trigger inverter is a sine wave the output will be a __________ (square-wave, triangular-wave). square wave 3. A Schmitt-trigger device will “digitize” or square up input signals with slow rise times and slow fall times. (True or False) True

REVIEW Combinational vs. Sequential Logic Circuits R-S Flip-flop
Clocked R-S Flip-flop D Flip-flop J-K Flip-flop Latches (simple memory devices) Triggering of flip-flops Schmitt triggered device