Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space
All matter takes up space Amount of space taken up is the object’s Volume
Liters (L) & milliliters (mL) are the units used most to express liquid volume Liquid from a raindrop to an entire ocean can be expressed in these units
Graduated Cylinder is used to measure liquid volume
Surface of any liquid is curved Curved surface is called MENISCUS
To measure volume of most liquids including water... Use the bottom of the meniscus Meniscus in larger containers look flat – harder to see
Volume of regularly shaped object is always expressed in cubic units Cubic means: having 3 dimensions In Science they measure in: cubic meters (m 3 ) or cubic centimeters (cm 3 ) Which unit would you measure large objects?
To find the volume of a cube or rectangle use the following formula: Volume = length X width X height V = l X w x h
Formula for a cube won’t find accurate volume for irregular shaped objects Can measure the volume by using water displacement for measurement
*** Remember 1 cm 3 = 1mL *** Express the displacement of the solid in cm 3 only L Solids are never, ever never expressed in L or mL example: the rock displaced 80 mL of water so its volume is 80 cm 3
Mass – the amount of matter in an object Example: Human and a peanut Both made of matter But the human is larger and therefore has more mass
Mass is the same no matter where in the universe you are Only way to change the mass is to change the amount of matter making up an object
MassWeight Amount of Gravitational Pull on an object Varies Depending on your planet Measured using a scaleExpressed in Newtons Amount of matter in object Always Constant no matter what planet you are on Measured on balanceExpressed in Kilograms
The ability of an object to resist change in motion. Which of the two Below has more inertia?
An object Will not change motion Until something acts upon it.
The more mass an object has the harder it is to change motion. Which of the two would be harder to move?
Can be observed/measured without having to change the matters identity. List of Physical Properties StrengthFlexibilityColorTemperatureStateDensitySolubilityDuctilityMalleability
Physical Properties help identify Matter? How can you tell if you socks are clean? How can you tell the difference between an apple and an orange? How can you tell if the stove is on?
Relationship between Mass and Volume Volume= matter in a given space Something will be more Dense if it has more Volume in a given Space Which of the two is more dense?
Density Affects Liquids. If two liquids are put in the same glass. The Denser Liquid will go to the bottom and the less dense liquid will settle on top. http://www.sciencewithmrmilstid.com/wpcontent/uploads/liquiddensity.jpg
Solids with Solids If something is more dense than it is more compact: A tomato is more dense so you would have to carry less tomatoes to be carrying a kilogram than you would something less dense like Popcorn Solids with Liquids If a solid is less dense than a liquid it will float If a solid is less dense than a liquid it will sink
Density (D) is equal to an objects Mass (M)g divided by its Volume (V) cm 3 D=M /V So if an Objects Mass is 8g and its Volume is 2 cm 3 D=8g/2 cm 3 So D=4 g/cm3 Now you try one an objects Mass is 12 g and its Volume is 3 cm 3. What is its Density?
Each substance has a different Density. SubstanceDensity Silver7.13 g/cm 3 Water1 g/cm 3 Lead11.35 g/cm 3
Change affects physical Properties but does not change the substance itself
Describe Matter on its ability to change into new matter. Two common Chemical Properties are: Flammability=Ability of Substance to Burn Reactivity = ability of two or more substances to combine and form new substances Flammability Wood BurnsCreates SmokeCreates Ash Reactivity Iron Nail Lays on floor Oxygen reacts with Iron Creates Rust
Physical Property Observe without changing identity of substance Example unwrapping a box. The box does not change into something new. It is still a box Chemical Property Not easy to observe and change identity of substance Example Bread Dough being baked into Bread. Substance put into the oven is not the same as went in.
Properties, either Physical or Chemical, that Never Change. Examples: DensitySolubilityFlammabilityReactivity
When one or more substances are changed into something new Chemical properties of a substance foreshadow when a change will occur.
One or more substances are brought together (like Eggs, flour and sugar for a cake batter) The substances are put in an environment that is conducive to chemical change (like putting the cake in the oven) The substances under go Chemical Change and create something new (a cake)
Change in Odor Fizzing or Foaming Sound or light being giving off Production of Heat
It is very difficult to reverse a Chemical Change Has to be done by a series of Chemical Changes.
If it has been a Chemical Change the composition of the substance will have changed. Physical- The composition stays the same. Ice same composition as water Steam same composition as Ice Chemical As wood burns it turns into Ash and Smoke which do not have the same composition of wood.
Physical Changes are easier to reverse because there was no change in composition Chemical Changes are harder to reverse because of changes in composition.