Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Properties of Matter Chapter 2. Problem Solving Scientists will often use an object’s properties to best help them solve a problem.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "The Properties of Matter Chapter 2. Problem Solving Scientists will often use an object’s properties to best help them solve a problem."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Properties of Matter Chapter 2

2 Problem Solving Scientists will often use an object’s properties to best help them solve a problem

3 Section 1: What is Matter? Objectives ▫Define and describe the two properties of all matter ▫Identify the tools and units used to measure volume and mass ▫Calculate the volume of a regular-shaped object with a formula ▫Calculate the volume of an irregular-shaped object with the water displacement method ▫Compare and contrast mass and weight ▫Explain the relationship between mass and inertia

4 Section 1: What is Matter? We are made of matter ▫Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space

5 Section 1: What is Matter? Is it matter? ▫Toaster ▫Bowl of soup ▫Steam ▫Sound ▫Dust ▫Air ▫Heat ▫Flag ▫Bacteria ▫Light

6 Section 1: What is Matter? How much space does matter take up? ▫It depends ▫We call it volume  Volume is the amount of space taken up, or occupied, by an object

7 Section 1: What is Matter? Liquid volume ▫Often use units like the Liter (L) and milliliter (mL)  1000 mL = 1 L ▫Use a graduated cylinder to measure  Read along meniscus bottom  Meniscus is a curve at a liquid’s surface

8 Measuring volume of a liquid using a graduated cylinder

9 Section 1: What is Matter? Volume of solids ▫Regular shape—use a formula ▫Irregular shape—water displacement method  Measure water volume  Measure new volume with object  Find difference VOLUME = LENGTH X WIDTH X HEIGHT

10 Volume of a irregular shaped object with water displacement

11 Section 1: What is Matter? How will we do math problems in physical science? 4 steps 1.Write the formula 2.Identify the variables 3.Put numbers in equation 4.Solve for the answer, circle answer

12 Section 1: What is Matter? Sample problem: What is the volume of a box that has a length of 5 cm, a width of 1 cm, and a height of 2 cm? Step 1: Write the formula V= L x W x H

13 Section 1: What is Matter? Sample problem: What is the volume of a box that has a length of 5 cm, a width of 1 cm, and a height of 2 cm? Step 2: Identify the variables 5 cm 1 cm 2 cm

14 Section 1: What is Matter? Sample problem: What is the volume of a box that has a length of 5 cm, a width of 1 cm, and a height of 2 cm? Step 3: Put numbers in the equation V = 5 cm x 1 cm x 2 cm

15 Section 1: What is Matter? Sample problem: What is the volume of a box that has a length of 5 cm, a width of 1 cm, and a height of 2 cm? Step 4: Solve and circle answer V = 5 cm x 1 cm x 2 cm V= 10 cm 3

16 Section 1: What is Matter? Matter and Mass and Weight ▫Mass is the amount of matter in an object  It is the same everywhere in the universe! ▫Weight is a measure of the gravitational force exerted on an object  The more mass, the more weight  Varies by its location in the universe

17 Mass versus Weight

18 Section 1: What is Matter? Differences between Mass and Weight MassWeight Measure of amount of matter in an object Measure of the gravitation force on an object Always constant for an object no matter where it is Varies depending on where the object is on the Earth or the universe Measured using a balance (shown below) Measured using a spring scale (shown at right) Expressed in kilograms (kg), grams (g), and milligrams (mg) Expressed in newtons (N)

19 Mass versus Weight song

20 Section 1: What is Matter? Inertia ▫Inertia is the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion  The more mass an item has, the more inertia it will have

21 Inertia

22 Section 1: What is Matter? Section Review ▫Please answer the objectives on your objective summary sheet 1.Define and describe the two properties of all matter 2.Identify the tools and units used to measure volume and mass 3.Calculate the volume of a regular-shaped object with a formula 4.Calculate the volume of an irregular-shaped object with the water displacement method 5.Compare and contrast mass and weight 6.Explain the relationship between mass and inertia

23 Section 2: Physical Properties Objectives ▫Identify six examples of physical properties of matter ▫Describe how density is used to identify substances ▫Calculate density using a formula ▫List examples of physical changes ▫Explain what happens to matter during a physical change

24 Section 2: Physical Properties Let’s play 20 Questions! QUESTIONS

25 Section 2: Physical Properties Physical properties are great for the game Physical properties are great for describing matter ▫Physical properties are traits that can be observed or measured without changing the matter’s identity

26 Section 2: Physical Properties Thermal conductivity is the rate at which a substance transfers heat. Plastic foam is a poor conductor State is the physical form of the substance, such as solid, liquid, or gas. Ice is water in the solid state Density is the mass per unit volume of a substance. Lead is very dense, so it makes a good sinker for a fishing line Solubility is the ability of a substance to dissolve in another substance. Flavored drink mix dissolves in water. Ductility is the ability of a substance to be pulled into a wire. Copper is often used to make wiring because it is so ductile Malleability is the ability of a substance to be rolled or pounded into thin sheets. Aluminum can be rolled into sheets to make foil

27 Section 2: Physical Properties Density ▫Describes the relationship between mass and volume  Density is the amount of matter in a given amount of space, or volume GOLF 46 grams PING PONG 2 grams

28 Section 2: Physical Properties Solving for Density (d) Density can help identify substances Densities of Common Substances SUBSTANCEDENSITY (g/cm 3 )SUBSTANCEDENSITY (g/cm 3 ) Helium (gas) Zinc (solid)7.13 Oxygen (gas) Silver (solid)10.50 Water (liquid)1.00Lead (solid)11.35 Pyrite (solid)5.02Mercury (liquid)13.55 DENSITY = MASS VOLUME

29 Density song from our friend!

30 Section 2: Physical Properties Sample problem: What is the density of an object whose mass is 25g and whose volume is 10 cm 3 ? Step 1: Write the formula DENSITY = MASS VOLUME

31 Section 2: Physical Properties Sample problem: What is the density of an object whose mass is 25g and whose volume is 10 cm 3 ? Step 2: Identify the variables 25 g 10 cm 3

32 Section 2: Physical Properties Sample problem: What is the density of an object whose mass is 25g and whose volume is 10 cm 3 ? Step 3: Put numbers in the equation DENSITY = 25 g 10 cm 3

33 Section 2: Physical Properties Sample problem: What is the density of an object whose mass is 25g and whose volume is 10 cm 3 ? Step 4: Solve and circle answer DENSITY = 25 g 10 cm 3 Density= 2.5 g / cm 3

34 Section 2: Physical Properties The formula triangle Cover up the piece you want to solve for Find the new equation M = V =

35 Section 2: Physical Properties Sample problem: Suppose you have a lead ball whose mass is 454 g. What is the ball’s volume? Step 1: Write the formula

36 Section 2: Physical Properties Sample problem: Suppose you have a lead ball whose mass is 454 g. What is the ball’s volume? Step 2: Identify the variables 454 g g/cm 3 Densities of Common Substances SUBSTANCEDENSITY (g/cm 3 )SUBSTANCEDENSITY (g/cm 3 ) Helium (gas) Zinc (solid)7.13 Oxygen (gas) Silver (solid)10.50 Water (liquid)1.00Lead (solid)11.35 Pyrite (solid)5.02Mercury (liquid)13.55

37 Section 2: Physical Properties Sample problem: Suppose you have a lead ball whose mass is 454 g. What is the ball’s volume? Step 3: Put numbers in the equation

38 Section 2: Physical Properties Sample problem: Suppose you have a lead ball whose mass is 454 g. What is the ball’s volume? Step 4: Solve and circle answer V= 40 cm 3

39 Section 2: Physical Properties Physical Changes do not form new substances ▫A physical change is a change that affects one or more physical properties of a substances

40 Section 2: Physical Properties Examples of physical changes ▫Freezing water ▫Sanding wood ▫Dissolve sugar in water ▫Melting butter

41 Section 2: Physical Properties Matter and physical changes ▫Physical changes to not change the identity of the matter involved  Ice is still water  Sawdust is still wood  Melted butter is still butter  Shaped clay is still clay  Cut paper is still paper

42 Section 2: Physical Properties Section Review ▫Please answer the objectives on your objective summary sheet 1.Identify six examples of physical properties of matter 2.Describe how density is used to identify substances 3.Calculate density using a formula 4.List examples of physical changes 5.Explain what happens to matter during a physical change

43 Section 3: Chemical Properties Objectives ▫Describe two examples of chemical properties ▫Explain the importance of characteristic properties ▫Explain what happens during a chemical change ▫Distinguish between physical and chemical changes

44 Section 3: Chemical Properties Chemical properties ▫A chemical property describes matter based on its ability to change into new matter that has different properties

45 Section 3: Chemical Properties Chemical Properties ▫Flammability is the ability of a substance to burn ▫Reactivity is the ability of two or more substances to combine to form one or more new substances

46 Section 3: Chemical Properties Physical versus Chemical properties Physical PropertyChemical Property Shape Bending an iron nail will change its shape Reactivity An iron nail can react with oxygen in the air to form iron oxide (rust) State Rubbing alcohol is a clear liquid at room temperature Flammability Rubbing alcohol is able to burn easily

47 Section 3: Chemical Properties Physical versus Chemical properties ▫How do you tell?  Chemical—substance changes into something new by observing property  Physical—does not change identity by observing property

48 Section 3: Chemical Properties Characteristic Properties ▫Characteristic properties are the properties that are most useful in identifying a substance  Do not change regardless of sample size  Density, solubility, flammability, reactivity ▫How do I know what is in this beaker???? (tomorrow)

49 Section 3: Chemical Properties Chemical Changes and New Substances ▫A chemical change is when one or more substances are changed into new substances that have new and different properties  Not the same as a chemical property!

50 Bill Nye Chemical Change

51 Section 3: Chemical Properties How do we know a chemical change is occurring? ▫Change in color or odor

52 Section 3: Chemical Properties How do we know a chemical change is occurring? ▫Formation of a gas (fizzing and foaming)

53 Section 3: Chemical Properties How do we know a chemical change is occurring? ▫Sound or light being given off

54 Section 3: Chemical Properties Physical and Chemical Changes Change in texture Grinding baking soda into a fine, powdery substance is a physical change Reactivity with Vinegar Gas bubbles are produced when vinegar is poured into baking soda

55 Section 3: Chemical Properties Physical versus Chemical Changes ▫How do I know which is which? ▫DID THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION CHANGE?  If yes, it’s chemical  If no, it’s physical

56 Section 3: Chemical Properties Can changes be reversed? ▫Sometimes! ▫Ice  water  ice againREVERSIBLE ▫Egg  fried eggIRREVERSIBLE

57 The Properties Song!!!

58 Section 3: Chemical Properties Section Review ▫Please answer the objectives on your objective summary sheet 1.Describe two examples of chemical properties 2.Explain the importance of characteristic properties 3.Explain what happens during a chemical change 4.Distinguish between physical and chemical changes


Download ppt "The Properties of Matter Chapter 2. Problem Solving Scientists will often use an object’s properties to best help them solve a problem."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google