# The Properties of Matter

## Presentation on theme: "The Properties of Matter"— Presentation transcript:

The Properties of Matter
Chapter 2

Problem Solving Scientists will often use an object’s properties to best help them solve a problem

Section 1: What is Matter?
Objectives Define and describe the two properties of all matter Identify the tools and units used to measure volume and mass Calculate the volume of a regular-shaped object with a formula Calculate the volume of an irregular-shaped object with the water displacement method Compare and contrast mass and weight Explain the relationship between mass and inertia

Section 1: What is Matter?
We are made of matter Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space

Section 1: What is Matter?
Is it matter? Toaster Bowl of soup Steam Sound Dust Air Heat Flag Bacteria Light

Section 1: What is Matter?
How much space does matter take up? It depends We call it volume Volume is the amount of space taken up, or occupied, by an object

Section 1: What is Matter?
Liquid volume Often use units like the Liter (L) and milliliter (mL) 1000 mL = 1 L Use a graduated cylinder to measure Read along meniscus bottom Meniscus is a curve at a liquid’s surface

Measuring volume of a liquid using a graduated cylinder

Section 1: What is Matter?
Volume of solids Regular shape—use a formula Irregular shape—water displacement method Measure water volume Measure new volume with object Find difference VOLUME = LENGTH X WIDTH X HEIGHT

Volume of a irregular shaped object with water displacement

Section 1: What is Matter?
How will we do math problems in physical science? 4 steps Write the formula Identify the variables Put numbers in equation Solve for the answer, circle answer

Section 1: What is Matter?
Sample problem: What is the volume of a box that has a length of 5 cm, a width of 1 cm, and a height of 2 cm? Step 1: Write the formula V= L x W x H

Section 1: What is Matter?
Sample problem: What is the volume of a box that has a length of 5 cm, a width of 1 cm, and a height of 2 cm? Step 2: Identify the variables 5 cm 1 cm 2 cm

Section 1: What is Matter?
Sample problem: What is the volume of a box that has a length of 5 cm, a width of 1 cm, and a height of 2 cm? Step 3: Put numbers in the equation V= 5 cm x 1 cm x 2 cm

Section 1: What is Matter?
Sample problem: What is the volume of a box that has a length of 5 cm, a width of 1 cm, and a height of 2 cm? Step 4: Solve and circle answer V= 5 cm x 1 cm x 2 cm V= 10 cm3 NO NAKED NUMBERS!!

Section 1: What is Matter?
Matter and Mass and Weight Mass is the amount of matter in an object It is the same everywhere in the universe! Weight is a measure of the gravitational force exerted on an object The more mass, the more weight Varies by its location in the universe

Mass versus Weight

Section 1: What is Matter?
Differences between Mass and Weight Mass Weight Measure of amount of matter in an object Measure of the gravitation force on an object Always constant for an object no matter where it is Varies depending on where the object is on the Earth or the universe Measured using a balance (shown below) Measured using a spring scale (shown at right) Expressed in kilograms (kg), grams (g), and milligrams (mg) Expressed in newtons (N)

Mass versus Weight song

Section 1: What is Matter?
Inertia Inertia is the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion The more mass an item has, the more inertia it will have

Inertia

Section 1: What is Matter?
Section Review Please answer the objectives on your objective summary sheet Define and describe the two properties of all matter Identify the tools and units used to measure volume and mass Calculate the volume of a regular-shaped object with a formula Calculate the volume of an irregular-shaped object with the water displacement method Compare and contrast mass and weight Explain the relationship between mass and inertia

Section 2: Physical Properties
Objectives Identify six examples of physical properties of matter Describe how density is used to identify substances Calculate density using a formula List examples of physical changes Explain what happens to matter during a physical change

Section 2: Physical Properties
QUESTIONS Let’s play 20 Questions!

Section 2: Physical Properties
Physical properties are great for the game Physical properties are great for describing matter Physical properties are traits that can be observed or measured without changing the matter’s identity

Section 2: Physical Properties
Thermal conductivity is the rate at which a substance transfers heat. Plastic foam is a poor conductor State is the physical form of the substance, such as solid, liquid, or gas. Ice is water in the solid state Density is the mass per unit volume of a substance. Lead is very dense, so it makes a good sinker for a fishing line Solubility is the ability of a substance to dissolve in another substance. Flavored drink mix dissolves in water. Ductility is the ability of a substance to be pulled into a wire. Copper is often used to make wiring because it is so ductile Malleability is the ability of a substance to be rolled or pounded into thin sheets. Aluminum can be rolled into sheets to make foil

Section 2: Physical Properties
Density Describes the relationship between mass and volume Density is the amount of matter in a given amount of space, or volume GOLF 46 grams PING PONG 2 grams

Section 2: Physical Properties
Solving for Density (d) Density can help identify substances DENSITY = MASS VOLUME Densities of Common Substances SUBSTANCE DENSITY (g/cm3) Helium (gas) Zinc (solid) 7.13 Oxygen (gas) Silver (solid) 10.50 Water (liquid) 1.00 Lead (solid) 11.35 Pyrite (solid) 5.02 Mercury (liquid) 13.55

Density song from our friend!

Section 2: Physical Properties
Sample problem: What is the density of an object whose mass is 25g and whose volume is 10 cm3? Step 1: Write the formula DENSITY = MASS VOLUME

Section 2: Physical Properties
Sample problem: What is the density of an object whose mass is 25g and whose volume is 10 cm3? Step 2: Identify the variables 25 g 10 cm3

Section 2: Physical Properties
Sample problem: What is the density of an object whose mass is 25g and whose volume is 10 cm3? Step 3: Put numbers in the equation DENSITY = 25 g 10 cm3

Section 2: Physical Properties
Sample problem: What is the density of an object whose mass is 25g and whose volume is 10 cm3? Step 4: Solve and circle answer DENSITY = 25 g 10 cm3 Density= 2.5 g/cm3 NO NAKED NUMBERS!!

Section 2: Physical Properties
The formula triangle Cover up the piece you want to solve for Find the new equation M = V = D x V M D

Section 2: Physical Properties
Sample problem: Suppose you have a lead ball whose mass is 454 g. What is the ball’s volume? Step 1: Write the formula V= M D

Section 2: Physical Properties
Sample problem: Suppose you have a lead ball whose mass is 454 g. What is the ball’s volume? Step 2: Identify the variables 454 g 11.35 g/cm3 Densities of Common Substances SUBSTANCE DENSITY (g/cm3) Helium (gas) Zinc (solid) 7.13 Oxygen (gas) Silver (solid) 10.50 Water (liquid) 1.00 Lead (solid) 11.35 Pyrite (solid) 5.02 Mercury (liquid) 13.55

Section 2: Physical Properties
Sample problem: Suppose you have a lead ball whose mass is 454 g. What is the ball’s volume? Step 3: Put numbers in the equation V= 454 g 11.35 g/cm3

Section 2: Physical Properties
Sample problem: Suppose you have a lead ball whose mass is 454 g. What is the ball’s volume? Step 4: Solve and circle answer V= 454 g 11.35 g/cm3 NO NAKED NUMBERS!! V= 40 cm 3

Section 2: Physical Properties
Physical Changes do not form new substances A physical change is a change that affects one or more physical properties of a substances

Section 2: Physical Properties
Examples of physical changes Freezing water Sanding wood Dissolve sugar in water Melting butter

Section 2: Physical Properties
Matter and physical changes Physical changes to not change the identity of the matter involved Ice is still water Sawdust is still wood Melted butter is still butter Shaped clay is still clay Cut paper is still paper

Section 2: Physical Properties
Section Review Please answer the objectives on your objective summary sheet Identify six examples of physical properties of matter Describe how density is used to identify substances Calculate density using a formula List examples of physical changes Explain what happens to matter during a physical change

Section 3: Chemical Properties
Objectives Describe two examples of chemical properties Explain the importance of characteristic properties Explain what happens during a chemical change Distinguish between physical and chemical changes

Section 3: Chemical Properties
A chemical property describes matter based on its ability to change into new matter that has different properties

Section 3: Chemical Properties
Flammability is the ability of a substance to burn Reactivity is the ability of two or more substances to combine to form one or more new substances

Section 3: Chemical Properties
Physical Property Chemical Property Shape Bending an iron nail will change its shape Reactivity An iron nail can react with oxygen in the air to form iron oxide (rust) State Rubbing alcohol is a clear liquid at room temperature Flammability Rubbing alcohol is able to burn easily Physical versus Chemical properties

Section 3: Chemical Properties
Physical versus Chemical properties How do you tell? Chemical—substance changes into something new by observing property Physical—does not change identity by observing property

Section 3: Chemical Properties
Characteristic Properties Characteristic properties are the properties that are most useful in identifying a substance Do not change regardless of sample size Density, solubility, flammability, reactivity How do I know what is in this beaker???? (tomorrow)

Section 3: Chemical Properties
Chemical Changes and New Substances A chemical change is when one or more substances are changed into new substances that have new and different properties Not the same as a chemical property!

Bill Nye Chemical Change

Section 3: Chemical Properties
How do we know a chemical change is occurring? Change in color or odor

Section 3: Chemical Properties
How do we know a chemical change is occurring? Formation of a gas (fizzing and foaming)

Section 3: Chemical Properties
How do we know a chemical change is occurring? Sound or light being given off

Section 3: Chemical Properties
Reactivity with Vinegar Gas bubbles are produced when vinegar is poured into baking soda Physical and Chemical Changes Change in texture Grinding baking soda into a fine, powdery substance is a physical change

Section 3: Chemical Properties
Physical versus Chemical Changes How do I know which is which? DID THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION CHANGE? If yes, it’s chemical If no, it’s physical

Section 3: Chemical Properties
Can changes be reversed? Sometimes! Ice  water  ice again REVERSIBLE Eggfried egg IRREVERSIBLE

The Properties Song!!!

Section 3: Chemical Properties
Section Review Please answer the objectives on your objective summary sheet Describe two examples of chemical properties Explain the importance of characteristic properties Explain what happens during a chemical change Distinguish between physical and chemical changes