2 ObjectivesSPI Recognize that all matter consists of atomsSPI Apply an equation to determine the density of an object based on its mass and volumeSPI Distinguish between mass and weight using appropriate measuring instruments and unitsSPI Determine the relationship among the mass of objects, the distance between these objects, and the amount of gravitational attractionDefine new vocabulary terms: matter, volume, meniscus, mass, weight, inertiaDescribe the two properties of all matterIdentify the units used to measure volume and mass.Compare mass and weight.Explain how mass affects inertia.
3 MatterAnything that has mass and takes up spaceEverything has matter
4 Volume Amount of space an object takes up or occupies All matter takes up spaceNo two things can occupy the same space at the same timeMeasured in three dimensions
5 Measuring Liquid Volume What tool is used to measure liquid volume?Graduated cylinder, measuring cups, spoons, beakersUnits: Liter (L) or milliliter (mL)Meniscus – the curve at the surface of the liquidMeasure volume at the bottom of the meniscus
6 Measuring volume of regular shaped objects Solid objects expressed in cubic unitsCubic meters (m3)or cubic centimeters (cm3)Volume = length x width x heightExample: What is the volume of a box that has a length of 5 cm, a width of 1 cm, and a height of 2 cm?Step 1: Write the equation for volumeV = l x w x hStep 2: Replace the variables with the measurements given to you and solveV = 5 cm x 1 cm x 2 cm = 10 cm3
7 It’s Your Turn Calculate the volume for the following: Cube with length of 5 cmBox with height of 4 m, width of 8 cm, and length of 1 cmBook with height of 25 cm, width of 18 cm, and length of 4 cmCD case with 14.2 cm long, 12.4 cm wide, and 1 cm deep
8 Measuring volume of an Irregular Shaped Object Water DisplacementMeasure volume of water in graduated cylinder (initial volume)Carefully drop irregular object into grad. cylinderMeasure the volume of the water after the water level rises (final volume)Subtract the initial volume from the final volumeUnits expressed in cm3Solid objects are never expressed in L or mL
10 Mass Amount of matter in an object What has more matter, an elephant or a rabbit?The mass of an object is the same no matter where in the universe the object is.How can you change the amount of matter in a object?
11 Weight Measure of gravitational force exerted on an object More mass → greater gravitational force on object → greater weightWeight changes depending on location in universeWeigh less on moon than EarthWeigh more on Jupiter than Earth
13 Mass vs. Weight Amount of matter Always constant no matter where locatedMeasured with balanceUnits: kilograms (kg), grams (g), milligrams (mg)100g = 1NGravitational force on objectVaries depending on locationMeasured with spring scaleUnits: Newtons (N)
14 Inertia Tendency of an object to resist change in motion Object at rest will remain at rest until something causes it to moveObject in motion will stay in motion until something causes it to stop or slow downObject with more mass is harder to make move and harder to stop
15 Density Amount of matter in a given volume Every object has a different densityUsed to identify objectsDensity is the same no matter the amount of the object100 g of silver has a density of g/cm31 g of silver has a density of g/cm3More dense → sinkLess dense → floatDensity of water = 1 g/cm3If the density of the object is less than 1 g/cm3, the object will float in water.If density is greater than 1 g/cm3, the object will sink in water
17 Calculating Density Density = Mass Volume Units: g cm3 or g mL or kg m3Example: What is the density of an object whose mass is 25 g and whose volume is 10 cm3?Step 1: Write the equation for density.D = 𝑚 𝑣Step 2: Replace m and V with the measurements given in the problem, and solve.D = 25 𝑔 10 𝑐𝑚3 = 2.5 g/cm3
18 Calculating Mass and Volume Rearrange the density equation to find mass and volumeV = 𝑚 𝐷m = D x VDensity = Mass Volume
19 Your TurnFind the density of a substance that has a mass of 45 kg and a volume of 40 m3.A block of pine wood has a mass of 120 g. It has a width of 10 cm, length of 10 cm, and a height of 3 cm. What is the density of the wood? Will this block of pine float or sink in a pool of water? Why or why not?What is the density of an object that has a mass of 350 g and a volume of 90 cm3? Will the object float or sink in water? Why or why not?Suppose you have a lead ball whose mass is 454 g. Lead has a density of 10 g/cm3. What is the ball’s volume?What is the mass of a 15 mL sample of mercury? The density of mercury is 13 g/cm3.
20 Objectives SPI 0807.9.1 Recognize that all matter consists of atoms SPI Interpret the results of an investigation to determine whether a physical or chemical change has occurredDefine all new vocabulary terms: physical property, physical change, ductility, malleability, solubility, thermal conductivity, chemical property, chemical change, flammability, reactivity, precipitate.Identify six examples of physical properties of matter.List six examples of physical changes.Explain what happens to matter during a physical change.Explain two examples of chemical properties.List 6 examples of chemical changes.Explain what happens during a chemical change.Distinguish between physical and chemical changes
21 Physical PropertiesA characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the matter’s identity.Examples:MagnetismHeat conductivityStrengthFlexibilityOdorVolumeColor (sometimes)
22 Physical PropertiesThermal conductivity - rate at which substance transfers heatFoam- poor conductorMetal - great conductorState – physical form in which a substance existsSolid, liquid, gas, plasmaDensity – mass per unit volumeSolubility – ability of a substance to dissolve.Salt in waterDrink mix in waterDuctility – ability of a substance to be pulled into a wireCopper wireMalleability – ability of a substance to be rolled or pounded into this sheets.Aluminum into foil
23 Physical changesA change of matter from one form to another without a change in chemical properties.Do not change the identity of matter involvedExamples:Change stateChange shapeChange color (sometimes)Freezing waterMelting a popsicleTearing paperDissolving lemonade mix in waterSanding a piece of wood
24 Chemical PropertiesThe ability to change into new matter that has different properties.Flammability – ability of a substance to burnBurning woodBurning a matchReactivity – ability of two or more substances to combine and form one or more new substances.Reactivity with oxygen – rust (iron and oxygen)Reactivity with acidReactivity with baseReactivity with light
25 Chemical ChangesA change that occurs when one or more substances change into entirely new substances with different properties.Changes the identity of the substanceExamples:Soured milkRocket blast offEffervescent tablet dissolving in waterStatue of Liberty turning greenBurning paperCharcoal turning to diamondsBaking a cake
26 Signs of chemical changes In most chemical changes, more than one sign is present.Change in color (sometimes)Change in odorProduction of heatBubblingFizzing or foamingSound or light given offGas given offPrecipitate formed (solid substance formed in solution)