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States of Matter. What is matter ? 5/24/2015 2 Matter- anything that has mass and volume 5/24/2015 3.

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Presentation on theme: "States of Matter. What is matter ? 5/24/2015 2 Matter- anything that has mass and volume 5/24/2015 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 States of Matter

2 What is matter ? 5/24/2015 2

3 Matter- anything that has mass and volume 5/24/2015 3

4 4 Physical Properties Can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the matter.

5 5/24/2015 5 Example: You don’t change the identity of an apple to find it’s volume or see that it is red

6 5/24/2015 6 Thermal Conductivity: The rate at which a substance transfers thermal energy (heat) Example: Cup of hot chocolate warms your hands

7 5/24/2015 7 Solubility: The ability of a substance to dissolve into another substance. Example: Flavored drink mix dissolves into water

8 5/24/2015 8 Ductility: The ability of a substance to be pulled into a wire. Example: Copper Wire is ductile

9 5/24/2015 9 Malleability: The ability of a substance to be rolled or pounded into thin sheets. Example: Aluminum can be rolled into sheets to make aluminum foil

10 5/24/2015 10 You use physical properties all the time. For example, physical properties help determine if your socks are clean (odor) or if you can fit all your books into your backpack (volume).

11 Density: The mass per unit volume Density = mass volume D= m v 5/24/2015 11

12 Density Practice 5/24/2015 12

13 5/24/2015 13 Practice Problems Example: What is the density of an object whose mass is 20g and whose volume is 10 mL? D= ? 1. Write the equation D= m v

14 5/24/2015 14 2. Replace m and V with numbers D= 20g = 2 g/mL 10mL

15 5/24/2015 15 Example 2: What is the density of an object whose mass is 35 g and whose volume is 7 mL? Write the steps and solve yourself.

16 5/24/2015 16 1. D= m v 2. D= 35g 7mL 3. D= 5 g/mL

17 5/24/2015 17 Chemical Properties Describe matter based on its ability to change into new matter with different properties.

18 Example: Wood can be burned to create new matter (ash and smoke) 5/24/2015 18

19 5/24/2015 19

20 5/24/2015 20 Flammability- The ability to burn Ex: Wood has the ability to burn

21 Nonflammability - an object will not burn Example: Pots & pans 5/24/2015 21

22 5/24/2015 22 Just so you know…. Reactivity the ability of 2 or more substances to combine & form a new substance

23 5/24/2015 23 Reactivity with Oxygen- Oxidation When iron is exposed to oxygen and it rusts Ex: Rusty nail

24 Nonreactivity with oxygen: Substances or objects that will not rust. Ex: The bumper on a car 5/24/2015 24

25 How are physical and chemical properties different? 5/24/2015 25

26 5/24/2015 26 What’s the difference? Physical Properties- Can be measured/observed and do NOT change what something is made of

27 Chemical Properties: Describes how something will react. DOES change the chemical nature 5/24/2015 27

28 5/24/2015 28 Signs of a Chemical Change Changes in color Heat is produced Fizzing and Foaming Production of Sound or Light

29 5/24/2015 29 Physical Change A change that affects one or more physical properties of a substance. Example: Breaking a piece of chalk in two pieces.

30 5/24/2015 30 Examples of Physical Changes Freezing water for ice cubes Sanding a piece of wood Cutting your hair

31 5/24/2015 31 Bending a paper clip Melting a stick of butter

32 5/24/2015 32 Chemical Change Two or more substances are changed into a new substance Not the same as Chemical Properties

33 5/24/2015 33 Remember…… Chem. Props describe the ability of a substance to go through a chemical change

34 5/24/2015 34 What happens during a chemical change? When you bake a cake, you combine eggs, flour, sugar, oil, and other ingredients. Each ingredient has its own set of properties But if you mix all the ingredients together, you get something completely different.

35 5/24/2015 35 The heat of the oven and the interaction of the cake ingredients cause a chemical change.

36 Physical Change: A change in appearance only; DOES NOT CHANGE the identity of the matter Examples: Size change Shape change State change ( solid to liquid) 5/24/2015 36

37 Chemical Change: Produces new matter with different properties. The identity of the matter does change Examples: Color Change Heat produced or removed Fizzing & Foaming Smell Change Light/ Sound Produced 5/24/2015 37

38 Endothermic Energy is gained by a substance -Think “endo”= enter -Heat removed = cooler Example: Baking soda and vinegar absorbs heat and gets colder. 5/24/2015 38

39 Exothermic Energy is expelled. Can give off heat Think “exo” = exit Example: Oxidation – gives off heat 5/24/2015 39

40 5/24/2015 40 States of Matter - Physical forms in which a substance can exist Solid Liquid Gas

41 5/24/2015 41 Solid definite shape and definite volume Molecules are very close together Molecules vibrate in place

42 5/24/2015 42 Examples Rock Tree Loaf of bread Puppy Iron Cell Phone i-pod

43 5/24/2015 43 Liquid No definite shape; takes the shape of its container Ex: When you pour water from a beaker into a graduated cylinder does it stay in the shape of the beaker? Nope! definite volume

44 5/24/2015 44 Molecules move around Examples: Coffee Water

45 5/24/2015 45 Gas No definite shape No definite volume

46 Molecules completely break away from each other. There is empty space between the molecules. 5/24/2015 46

47 5/24/2015 47 Plasma No definite shape or volume Molecules have broken apart

48 Plasma Conducts electric currents;GASES DON’T Examples: Auroras Fluorescent Lights Lightning 5/24/2015 48

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