2 Living Systems Biology - The science of life and all living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, and distribution. It includes botany and zoology and all their subdivisions.BOTANY – study plantsZOOLOGY – study animalsPALEONTOLOGY – study past (ancient) life formsECOLOGY – study of life and surroundings (environments)
3 Living Systems 1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells 2. All organisms are able to grow, reproduce and adapt3. All organisms use energy4. All organisms maintain homeostasis5. All organisms respond to the environment6. All organisms receive instructions from DNA
4 1. Cell Theory All living things are made up of cells. Cells are the smallest working units of all living things.All cells come from preexisting cells through cell division.
5 Definition of CellA cell is the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions.
6 Examples of Cells Amoeba Proteus Plant Stem Bacteria Red Blood Cell Nerve Cell
7 Prokaryotic Eukaryotic (animal cells) Two Types of CellsProkaryoticEukaryotic (animal cells)
8 2. AdaptationAny structure, behavior, process that promotes survival of a species.Cactus – have thornsCamels – have humps of FAT on their backsCamels foot – webbed to trek terrain
9 3. Organisms use energy All Life needs energy- photosynthesizers use solar energy, (autotrophs)chemosynthesizers use chemical energy, (autotrophs)Most other organisms use the energy stored as the bodies of the these two. (heterotrophs)
10 4. HomeostasisSteady state of being regardless of external surroundings.Maintaining a stable internal environmentShiver when cold.Sweat when hot.
11 5. Environment- surroundings Biotic factors – all things alive or that once lived.Abiotic factors – all things that never lived but affect life.
12 6. Instructions from DNAEvery living thing has DNA. That means that you have something in common with a zebra, a tree, a mushroom and a beetle!!!!
13 Classification Taxonomy naming system for the organization of life. Grouping or categorizing based on similaritiesModern classification began with the work of Carolus Linnaeus,who grouped species according to shared physical characteristics.In the life sciences, binomial nomenclature is the formal method of naming species. As the word "binomial" suggests, the scientific name of a species is formed by the combination of two terms: the genus name and the species descriptor.
14 Classification of living systems KingdomsPhylumClassOrderFamilyGenusSpecies
15 } Classification 6 KINGDOMS Animalia Plantae Fungi Protista ProkaryotesEukaryotesViruses are not classified as living. Viruses do however demonstrate reproductive capabilities like living things. They are smaller than bacterial cells!}Used to be 1 kingdom- Monera (Bacteria only)
16 The 6 kingdoms Prokaryotes (Used to be 1 kingdom, Monera) Eukaryotes ArchaebacteriaEubacteriaEukaryotesFungiProtistaAnimalPlantae
17 Overview of the 6 kingdoms ArchaebacteriaUnicellularLive in extreme environmentsProkaryoticEubacteria“Common bacteria”
18 Overview of the 6 kingdoms ProtistaEukaryoticUnicellular or colonialLots of different life stylesFungiCell walls made of chitinMulticellularExternal heterotrophs
19 Overview of the 6 kingdoms PlantaeEukaryotic & MulticellularCell walls made of celluloseAutotrophicAnimaliaNo cell wallsInternal heterotrophs
24 My real name is Puma concolor What is my name?My real name is Puma concolor
25 Binomial Nomenclature There are at least 50 common names for Puma concolor.Common names vary according to region, country or language.Soooo……why use a scientific name?
26 Binomial Nomenclature Two name system for writing scientific names.The genus name is written first (always Capitalized). The species name is written second (never capitalized). Both words are italicized if typed or underlined if hand written. The name is also in Latin (a dead language).
27 Binomial Nomenclature More examples-Genus and species Common name RangePanthera leoLionAfrica (Asia)Panthera oncaJaguarN. & S. AmericaPanthera pardusLeopardAfrica, Asia, EuropePanthera tigrisTigerAsia
28 How many organisms are out there? Scientists currently estimate thatThere are 10 million species worldwideOver 5 million live in the tropicsMost unnamed species are small or microscopic
29 Why is taxonomy useful? Helps prevent confusion among scientists Helps to show how organisms are relatedCan be used to reconstruct phylogenies – evolutionary histories – of an organism or group
30 Organization of LIFE CELL – BASIC UNIT OF LIFE TISSUE- MANY CELLS ORGANS- MANY TISSUESORGAN SYSTEMS-GROUPED ORGANSORGANISMS – CONTAINS ORGAN GROUPSSPECIES- GROUPS OF THE SAME ORGANISM