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Chapter 4 & 18 review. 1. What are the characteristics of living organisms? (on webquest) – Made up of at least one cell – Has DNA – Needs energy and.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 & 18 review. 1. What are the characteristics of living organisms? (on webquest) – Made up of at least one cell – Has DNA – Needs energy and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4 & 18 review

2 1. What are the characteristics of living organisms? (on webquest) – Made up of at least one cell – Has DNA – Needs energy and a food source to survive – Grows – Has a metabolism – Maintains homeostasis – Responds to stimuli from environment – Reproduces 2. Would a virus be considered living? Why or why not? - NO! Viruses: - Not made of cells - Not all have DNA (some do) - Do NOT need food - Do NOT grow - Do NOT have a metabolism - Do NOT maintain homeostasis - Do NOT reproduce on own (use host cell)

3 3. What (and when) did Hooke discover? Robert Hooke (in 1665): First person to see cells (cork), named cells 4. What (and when) did van Leeuwenhoek discover? -Anton van Leeuwenhoek (in 1673): -First person to see living cells (Protists and bacteria), made his own microscopes 5. List the parts of the cell theory - All living organisms are made up of one or more cells - Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in a living organism - Cells come only from the reproduction of existing cells

4 6. Do all cells look the same? Average cell size? No, cells come in many different shapes and sizes (although most are microscopic). The form (shape) of a cell enables the cell to perform its specific function efficiently Average plant and animal cell: 10 – 50 micrometers, bacterial cells are much smaller 7. Describe “Form Fits Function”. Explain a cellular example. The form (shape) of a cell enables the cell to perform its specific function efficiently – Examples: Red Blood Cell is round to fit through blood vessels, White Blood Cell can change shape to move around the body and fight off infections, Nerve cells have long extensions to send and receive messages Skin cells are flat and stack up to form a protective barrier

5 8. What does selectively permeable mean? Only certain materials are permitted to enter and leave the cell Only certain amounts are permitted to enter and leave the cell 9. Describe the cell of a prokaryotic organism. Give an example Example: Bacteria (Archaebacteria, Methanogen; Eubacteria, E. coli) Very small (smaller than eukaryotic), All have a cell membrane, Some also have a cell wall, All prokaryotic cells have cytoplasm and cytosol, All prokaryotic cells have DNA (usually clumped together into a nucleoid region), – NO NUCLEUS!!! All prokaryotic cells have organelles without membranes (ribosomes)

6 10. Describe the cell of a eukaryotic organism. Examples: Protist, Amoeba; Fungi, mushroom, yeast; Plant; Animal Usually microscopic, All eukaryotic cells have a cell membrane, some also have cell walls (NO ANIMAL CELLS HAVE CELL WALLS), All eukaryotic cells have cytoplasm and cytosol, All eukaryotic cells have DNA inside of a nucleus, All eukaryotic cells have organelles without and with membranes 11. What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? Prokaryotic cells are usually smaller. Prokaryotic cells do not have organelles with a membrane (nucleus, Golgi, Mitochondria, ER, Chloroplast) 12. What do all cells have in common? All cells have a cell membrane, cytoplasm, cytosol, DNA and some organelles

7 13. What is binomial nomenclature? Scientific naming process, each identified organism is classified into categories from very general to very specific. The Genus and species name are combined to give the scientific name of organisms, always capitalize Genus, need to italicize or underline whole name – Homo sapiens; Limulus polyphemus; E. coli Domains: Domain Archae (Kingdom Archaebacteria), Domain Bacteria (Kingdom Eubacteria), Domain Eukarya (Kingdoms Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia)

8 15. Who created the Kingdom system? List the categories from most general to specific - Linnaeus: Swedish scientist, devised heirarchical classification system, created binomial nomenclature system Linnaeus’: Kingdom  Phylum  Class  Order  Family  Genus  Species Now: Domain  Kingdom  Phylum  Class  Order  Family  Genus  Species

9 16. Characteristics of: Kingdom Archaebacteria (“ancient” bacteria) – Cell Type: Prokaryotic ONLY – Nutrition: Autotrophic and/or heterotrophic (Both) – Example: Methanogens Kingdom Eubacteria (“True” bacteria) – Cell Type: Prokaryotic ONLY – Nutrition: Autotrophic and/or heterotrophic (Both) – Example: E. coli, salmonella

10 Kingdom Protista – Cell Type: Eukaryotic ONLY – Nutrition: Autotrophic and/or heterotrophic (Both) – Example: Amoeba, Algae Kingdom Fungi – Cell Type: Eukaryotic ONLY – Nutrition: Heterotrophic ONLY – Example: Mushroom, Mold

11 Kingdom Plantae – Cell Type: Eukaryotic ONLY – Nutrition: Autotrophic and/or heterotrophic (Both) – Example: Tree, grass, cacti, flowers, vegetables Kingdom Animalia – Cell Type: Eukaryotic ONLY – Nutrition: Heterotrophic ONLY – Example: Human, bird, turtle, worm, fish, cat

12 Cell Type ProkaryoticEukaryoticBoth Archaebacteria Eubacteria Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia None

13 Nutrition AutotrophicHeterotrophicKingdom contains species with both NoneFungi Animalia Archaebacteria Eubacteria Protista Plantae

14 Cell Type UnicellularMulticellularKingdom has both Archaebacteria Eubacteria Fungi Animalia Protista Fungi


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