2Define groups and the stages of group development Define groups and the stages of group development. Describe the major components that determine group performance and satisfaction. Define teams and best practices influencing team performance. Discuss contemporary issues in managing teams.
3What Is a Group?Group - two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve specific goals.Formal groupsWork groups defined by the organization’s structure that have designated work assignments and tasksInformal groupsGroups that are independently formed to meet the social needs of their members
5Stages of Group Development Forming stage - the first stage of group development in which people join the group and then define the group’s purpose, structure, and leadershipStorming stage - the second stage of group development, characterized by intragroup conflictNorming stage - the third stage of group development, characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness.
6Stages of Group Development (cont.) Performing stage - the fourth stage of group development when the group is fully functional and works on group task.Adjourning - the final stage of group development for temporary groups during which group members are concerned with wrapping up activities rather than task performance.
8Work Group Performance and Satisfaction Why are some groups more successful than others?The abilities of the group’s membersThe size of the groupThe level of conflictThe internal pressures on members to conform to the group’s norms
9Exhibit 14-3 Group Performance/Satisfaction Model
10External Conditions Imposed on the Group Work groups are affected by the external conditions imposed on it:The organization’s strategyAuthority relationshipsFormal rules and regulationsAvailability of resourcesEmployee selection criteriaThe performance management system and cultureThe general physical layout of the group’s work space
11Group Member Resources A group’s performance potential depends to a large extent on the resources each individual brings to the group. These include:KnowledgeAbilitiesSkillsPersonality traits
12Group StructureRole - behavior patterns expected of someone occupying a given position in a social unit.Norms - standards or expectations that are accepted and shared by a group’s members.Groupthink - when a group exerts extensive pressure on an individual to align his or her opinion with that of others.
13Group Structure (cont.) Status - a prestige grading, position, or rank within a group.Social loafing - the tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually.Group cohesiveness - the degree to which group members are attracted to one another and share the group’s goals.
15Exhibit 14-5 Group Cohesiveness and Productivity
16Group Structure (cont.) Group SizeSmall groups are faster than larger ones at completing tasksLarge groups consistently get better problem solving results than smaller onesAmazon founder and CEO Jeff Bezos uses a “two-pizza” philosophy; that is, a team should be small enough that it can be fed with two pizzas.
17Group Structure (cont.) Group Processes - processes that go on within a work group determines group performance and satisfaction. These include:CommunicationDecision makingConflict management
18Group Structure (cont.) Group Decision Making - most organizations use groups to make decisions.Advantages of group decision makingMore complete information and knowledgeA diversity of experience and perspectivesIncreased acceptance of a solutionDisadvantages of group decision makingGroups almost always take more time nDominant and vocal minority can influence the decisionGroupthink
20Conflict ManagementConflict - perceived incompatible differences that result in interference or opposition.Traditional view of conflict - the view that all conflict is bad and must be avoided.Human relations view of conflict - the view that conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group
21Conflict Management (cont.) Interactionist view of conflict - the view that some conflict is necessary for a group to perform effectively.Functional conflicts - conflicts that support a group’s goals and improve its performance.Dysfunctional conflicts - conflicts that prevent a group from achieving its goals.
22Conflict Management (cont.) Task conflict - conflicts over content and goals of the work.Relationship conflict - conflict based on interpersonal relationships.Process conflict - conflict over how work gets done.
25Turning Groups into Effective Teams Work teams - groups whose members work intensely on a specific, common goal using their positive synergy, individual and mutual accountability, and complementary skills
27Types of Work TeamsProblem-solving team - a team from the same department or functional area that’s involved in efforts to improve work activities or to solve specific problems.Self-managed work team - a type of work team that operates without a manager and is responsible for a complete work process or segment.
28Types of Work Teams (cont.) Cross-functional team - a work team composed of individuals from various functional specialties.Virtual team - a type of work team that uses technology to link physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal.
29Creating Effective Work Teams Clear Goals - high-performance teams have a clear understanding of the goal to be achievedRelevant Skills – team members have the necessary technical and interpersonal skillsMutual Trust - effective teams are characterized by high mutual trust among membersUnified Commitment – members are dedicated to team goals
30Creating Effective Work Teams (cont.) Good Communication – messages are clearly understoodNegotiating Skills - members need are able to confront and reconcile differencesAppropriate Leadership – leaders motivate a team to follow through difficult situationsInternal and External Support – proper training, incentives, and resources
31Exhibit 14-10 Characteristics of Effective Teams
32Current Challenges in Managing Teams Group Member Resources in Global Teams - managers need to clearly understand the cultural characteristics of group membersGroup Structure – issues include conformity, status, social loafing, and cohesivenessGroup Processes - multicultural global team is better able to capitalize on the diversity of ideas
34Understanding Social Networks The patterns of informal connections among individuals within groups.The Importance of Social NetworksRelationships can help or hinder team effectiveness.Relationships improve team goal attainment and increase member commitment to the team.
35Review Learning Outcome 14.1 Define groups and the stages of group development.A group is two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve specific goalsFormal groups are work groups and informal groups are social groups.Group developmentforming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning
36Review Learning Outcome 14.2 Describe the major components that determine group performance and satisfaction.Group performance and satisfaction are determined by external conditions, group member resources, group structure, group processes, and group tasks.External conditions include availability of resources, organizational goals and other factors
37Review Learning Outcome 14.2 (cont.) Group member resources (knowledge, skills, abilities, personality traits) can influence what members can do and how effectively they will perform in a group.Group roles generally involve getting the work done or keeping group members happy. Group norms are powerful influences on a person’s performance and dictate things such as work output levels, absenteeism, and promptness
38Review Learning Outcome 14.2 (cont.) Pressures to conform can heavily influence a person’s judgment and attitudes. If carried to extremes, groupthink can be a problem.Group decision making and conflict management are important group processes that play a role in performance and satisfaction.Effective communication and controlled conflict are most relevant to group performance when tasks are complex and interdependent
39Review Learning Outcome 14.3 Define teams and best practices influencing team performance.Characteristics of work groups include a strong, clearly focused leader; individual accountability; purpose that’s the same as the broader organizational mission; individual work product; efficient meetings; effectiveness measured by influence on others; and discusses, decides, and delegates together
40Review Learning Outcome 14.3 (cont.) Characteristics of teams include shared leadership roles; individual and mutual accountabilityA problem-solving team is one that’s focused on improving work activities or solving specific problems.A self-managed work team is responsible for a complete work process or segment and manages itself.A cross-functional team is composed of individuals from various specialties.A virtual team uses technology to link physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal.
41Review Learning Outcome 14.3 (cont.) The characteristics of an effective team include:Clear goalsRelevant skillsMutual trustUnified commitmentGood communicationNegotiating skillsAppropriate leadershipInternal and external support
42Review Learning Outcome 14.4 Discuss contemporary issues in managing teams.Challenges of managing global teamsGroup member resourcesDiverse cultural characteristicsGroup structureStatus,Social loafing and cohesivenessGroup processesManaging conflict