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McGraw-Hill/IrwinCopyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter Fifteen Effective Groups and Teams.

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Presentation on theme: "McGraw-Hill/IrwinCopyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter Fifteen Effective Groups and Teams."— Presentation transcript:

1 McGraw-Hill/IrwinCopyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter Fifteen Effective Groups and Teams

2 15-2 Groups, Teams and Organizational Effectiveness  Group ≈ Two or more people who interact with each other to accomplish certain goals or meet certain needs.

3 15-3 Groups, Teams and Organizational Effectiveness  Team ≈ A group whose members work intensely with each other to achieve a specific, common goal or objective. ≈ All teams are groups but not all groups are teams.  Teams often are difficult to form.  It takes time for members to learn how to work together.

4 15-4 Groups’ and Teams’ Contributions to Organizational Effectiveness Figure 15.1

5 15-5 Groups and Teams as Performance Enhancers  Advantage of synergy ≈ People working in a group are able to produce more outputs than would have been produced if each person had worked separately

6 15-6 Groups and Teams and Responsiveness to Customers  Responsiveness to Customers ≈ May be difficult to achieve given the many constraints. ≈ Cross-functional teams can provide the wide variety of skills needed to meet customer demands.  Teams consist of members of different departments.

7 15-7 Teams and Innovation  Innovation ≈ The creative development of new products, new technologies, new services, or new organizational structures  Individuals rarely possess the wide variety of skills needed for successful innovation.  Team members can uncover each other’s flaws and balance each other’s strengths and weaknesses

8 15-8 Groups and Teams as Motivators  Members of groups, and particularly teams, are often better motivated and satisfied than individuals. ≈ Team members are more motivated and satisfied than if they were working alone.

9 15-9 The Types of Groups and Teams in Organizations Figure 15.2

10 15-10 The Types of Groups and Teams  Formal Group ≈ A group that managers establish to achieve organization goals.  Informal Group ≈ A group that managers or nonmanagerial employees form to help achieve their own goals or to meet their own needs.

11 15-11 The Types of Groups and Teams

12 15-12 The Types of Groups and Teams

13 15-13 Student Teams  Develop skills necessary to work within heterogeneous teams w/ unstructured team dynamics ≈ Learn to assume leadership positions not formally granted by org ≈ Practice effective persuasion skills in order to convince other members to choose certain options in task accomplishment ≈ Motivate others wo/ formal reward system

14 15-14 Group Size  Advantage of small groups ≈ Interact more with each other and easier to coordinate their efforts ≈ More motivated, satisfied, and committed ≈ Easier to share information ≈ Better able to see the importance of their personal contributions

15 15-15 Group Tasks  Task interdependence ≈ degree to which the work performed by one member of the group influences the work performed by other members

16 15-16 Types of Task Interdependence Figure 15.3

17 15-17 Group Roles  Group Roles ≈ The set of behaviors and tasks that a group member is expected to perform because of his or her position in the group.

18 15-18 Group Roles  In cross-functional teams, members are expected to perform roles in their specialty.  Managers should clearly describe expected roles to group members when they are assigned to the group.  Role-making occurs as workers take on more responsibility in their roles as group members.  Self-managed teams may assign the roles to members themselves.

19 15-19 Group Leadership  Effective leadership is a key ingredient in high performing groups, teams, and organizations.  Formal groups created by an organization have a leader appointed by the organization.  Groups that evolve independently in an organization have an informal leader recognized by the group.

20 15-20 The Stages of Group Development Figure 15.4

21 15-21 Stages of Group Development  Forming ≈ Group members get to know each other and reach common understanding  Storming ≈ Group members experience conflict because some members do not wish to submit to demands of other group members  Self-managed teams particularly vulnerable  Norming ≈ Close ties and consensus begin to develop between group members.

22 15-22 Stages of Group Development  Performing ≈ The group begins to do its real work.  Adjourning ≈ Only for task forces that are temporary ≈ Group is dispersed

23 15-23 Group Norms  Group Norms ≈ Shared guidelines or rules for behavior that most group members follow  Managers should encourage members to develop norms that contribute to group performance and the attainment of group goals

24 15-24 Group Dynamics  Conformity and Deviance ≈ Members conform to norms to obtain rewards, imitate respected members, and because they feel the behavior is right. ≈ When a member deviates, other members will try to make them conform, expel the member, or change the group norms to accommodate them.

25 15-25 Figure 15.5 Balancing Conformity and Deviance in Groups

26 15-26 Sources and Consequences of Group Cohesiveness Figure 15.6

27 15-27 Factors Leading to Group Cohesiveness

28 15-28 Managing Groups and Teams for High Performance  Motivating group members to achieve organizational goals: ≈ Members should benefit when the group performs well—rewards can be monetary or in other forms such as special recognition. ≈ Individual compensation is a combination of both individual and group performance.

29 15-29 Managing Groups and Teams for High Performance  Social loafing ≈ The tendency of individuals to put forth less effort in a group than individually. ≈ Results in possibly lower group performance and failure to attain group goals

30 15-30 Three Ways to Reduce Social Loafing Figure 15.7

31 15-31 Team Building  Any formal intervention directed toward improving development and functioning of work team ≈ Role definition: clarifying obligations, norms ≈ Interpersonal process: building trust and open communication (e.g., wilderness activities) ≈ Goal setting: clarifying goals, increase goal motivation ≈ Problem-solving: improve team’s decision process

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