3Learning ObjectivesExplain why groups and teams are key contributors to organizational effectiveness.Identify the different types of groups and teams that help managers and organizations achieve their goals.Explain how different elements of group dynamics influence the functioning and effectiveness of groups and teams.
4Learning ObjectivesExplain why it is important for groups and teams to have a balance of conformity and deviance and a moderate level of cohesiveness.Describe how managers can motivate group members to achieve organizational goals and reduce social loafing in groups and teams.
5Groups, Teams and Organizational Effectiveness Two or more people who interact with each other to accomplish certain goals or meet certain needs.
6Groups, Teams and Organizational Effectiveness A group whose members work intensely with each other to achieve a specific, common goal or objective.All teams are groups but not all groups are teams.Teams often are difficult to form.It takes time for members to learn how to work together.
7Groups, Teams and Organizational Effectiveness Two characteristics distinguish teams from groupsIntensity with which team members work togetherPresence of a specific, overriding team goal or objective
8Groups and Teams as Performance Enhancers Advantage of synergyPeople working in a group are able to produce more outputs than would have been produced if each person had worked separately
9Groups and Teams as Performance Enhancers Factors that contribute to synergyAbility of group members to bounce ideas off one anotherTo correct one another’s mistakesTo bring a diverse knowledge base to bear on a problemTo accomplish work that is too vast for any one individual to achieve
10Groups and Teams as Performance Enhancers To take advantage of the potential for synergy, managers need to make sure groups are composed of members who have complementary skills and knowledge relevant to the group’s work
11Groups’ and Teams’ Contributions to Organizational Effectiveness Figure 15.1
12Groups and Teams and Responsiveness to Customers Difficult to achieve given the many constraints.Safety issues, regulations, costs.Cross-functional teams can provide the wide variety of skills needed to meet customer demands.Teams consist of members of different departments.
13Teams and Innovation Innovation The creative development of new products, new technologies, new services, or new organizational structuresIndividuals rarely possess the wide variety of skills needed for successful innovation.Team members can uncover each other’s flaws and balance each other’s strengths and weaknessesManagers should empower the team and make it accountable for the innovation process.
14Groups and Teams as Motivators Members of groups, and particularly teams, are often better motivated and satisfied than individuals.Team members are more motivated and satisfied than if they were working alone.Team members can see the effect of their contribution to achieving team and organizational goals.Teams provide needed social interaction and help employees cope with work-related stressors.
15The Types of Groups and Teams in Organizations Figure 15.2
16The Types of Groups and Teams Formal GroupA group that managers establish to achieve organization goals.
17Formal Groups Cross-functional teams Cross-cultural teams composed of members from different departmentsCross-cultural teamscomposed of members from different cultures or countries
18The Types of Groups and Teams Informal GroupA group that managers or nonmanagerial employees form to help achieve their own goals or to meet their own needs.
21Self-Managed Work Teams Keys to effective self managed teams:Give the team enough responsibility and autonomy to be self-managing.The team’s task should be complex enough to include many different steps.Select members carefully for their diversity, skills, and enthusiasm.Managers should guide and coach, not supervise.Determine training needs and be sure it is provided.
22Virtual Teams A team whose members rarely meet face-to-face Interact by using various forms of information technology, computer networks, telephone, fax, and videoconferences
23Friendship GroupsAn informal group composed of employees who enjoy one another’s company and socialize with one another
24Interest GroupsAn informal group of employees seeking to achieve a common goal related to their membership in an organization
25Group Size Advantage of small groups Interact more with each other and easier to coordinate their effortsMore motivated, satisfied, and committedEasier to share informationBetter able to see the importance of their personal contributions
26Group Size Advantages of large groups More resources at their disposal to achieve group goalsEnables managers to obtain division of labor advantages
27Group Size Disadvantages of large groups Problem of communication and coordinationLower level of motivationMembers might not think their efforts are really needed
28Group Tasks Group tasks impact how a group interacts. Task interdependence shows how the work of one member impacts another; as interdependence rises, members must work more closely together.
29Group Dynamics: Interdependence PooledMembers make separate, independent contributions to group such that group performance is the sum of each member’s contributions
30Group Dynamics: Interdependence SequentialMembers perform tasks in a sequential order making it difficult to determine individual performance since one member depends on another.
31Group Dynamics: Interdependence ReciprocalWork performed by one group member is mutually dependent on work done by other members.
33Group Roles Group Roles The set of behaviors and tasks that a group member is expected to perform because of his or her position in the group.
34Group RolesIn cross-functional teams, members are expected to perform roles in their specialty.Managers should clearly describe expected roles to group members when they are assigned to the group.Role-making occurs as workers take on more responsibility in their roles as group members.Self-managed teams may assign the roles to members themselves.
35Group LeadershipEffective leadership is a key ingredient in high performing groups, teams, and organizations.Formal groups created by an organization have a leader appointed by the organization.Groups that evolve independently in an organization have an informal leader recognized by the group.
37Stages of Group Development FormingGroup members get to know each other and reach common goals.StormingGroup members disagree on direction and leadership. Managers need to be sure the conflict stays focused.NormingClose ties and consensus begin to develop between group members.
38Stages of Group Development PerformingThe group begins to do its real work.AdjourningOnly for task forces that are temporary.Note that these steps take time!
39Group Norms Group Norms Shared guidelines or rules for behavior that most group members followManagers should encourage members to develop norms that contribute to group performance and the attainment of group goals
40Group Dynamics Conformity and Deviance Members conform to norms to obtain rewards, imitate respected members, and because they feel the behavior is right.When a member deviates, other members will try to make them conform, expel the member, or change the group norms to accommodate them.Conformity and deviance must be balanced for high performance from the group.Deviance allows for new ideas in the group.
41Balancing Conformity and Deviance in Groups Figure 15.5
42Group CohesivenessThe degree to which members are attracted to their groupThree major consequencesLevel of participationLevel of conformity to group normsEmphasis on group goal accomplishment
43Sources and Consequences of Group Cohesiveness Figure 15.6
45Managing Groups and Teams for High Performance Motivating group members to achieve organizational goals:Members should benefit when the group performs well—rewards can be monetary or in other forms such as special recognition.Individual compensation is a combination of both individual and group performance.Make additional resources (beyond compensation) such as choice assignments available to high-performance groups.
46Managing Groups and Teams for High Performance Social loafingThe human tendency to put forth less effort in a group than individually.Results in possibly lower group performance and failure to attain group goals
47Managing Groups and Teams for High Performance Reducing social loafing:Make individual efforts identifiable and accountable.Emphasize the valuable contributions of individual members.Keep group size at an appropriate level.