Chapter Outline What is Anthropology? Cultural Anthropology Archaeology Linguistic Anthropology
Chapter Outline Physical Anthropology Physical Anthropology and the Scientific Method The Anthropological Perspective
Hominids Humans are hominids, belonging to the taxonomic family Hominidae. Bipedalism, walking on two legs, is a critical feature of the hominids. Humans are members of the Order Primates, the group of mammals that includes prosimians, monkeys and apes.
Issues for Physical Anthropologists Evolution A change in the genetic structure of a population. Adaptation Functional response of organisms or populations to the environment. Adaptation results from evolutionary change.
Evolution Microevolution Small genetic changes that occur within a species. Macroevolution Changes that occur only after many generations, such as the appearance of a new species (speciation).
Culture technologies subsistence patterns housing types clothing religion marriage and family values gender roles Strategies humans use to adapt to their environment:
Culture Culture is learned, and the process of learning one’s culture begins at birth. Even though culture isn’t genetically determined, the human predisposition to assimilate culture is influenced by genetics. Over time, culture and biology interacted in such a way that humans are said to be the result of biocultural evolution.
What Is Anthropology? The study of humankind. Integrates sociology, economics, history, psychology, and biology. Comprises three subfields: cultural anthropology archaeology physical (or biological) anthropology
Cultural Anthropology Studies all aspects of human behavior. Subfields: Urban anthropology deals with issues of inner cities. Medical anthropology explores relationship between culture and health.
Archaeology Study and interpretation of material remains recovered from earlier cultures. Information about culture comes from artifacts and material culture left by early hominids.
Linguistic Anthropology Study of the origin of language and speech. The use of language is a unique human characteristic. Relationship between culture and language: How do members of a society perceive phenomena? How does the use of language shape perceptions?
Physical Anthropology Study of human biology in the framework of evolution. Subfields: Paleoanthropology - human evolution Anthropometry - measurement of body parts Primatology: study of nonhuman primates Osteology: study of skeletons
Physical Anthropology and the Scientific Method State the research problem. Develop a hypothesis. Test the hypothesis through data collection and analysis. If the hypothesis is verified, it becomes a theory.
Anthropological Perspective A broad perspective that helps us understand the diversity of the human experience within the context of biological and behavioral continuity with other species. By learning about cultures other than our own, we can avoid an ethnocentric view of other cultures. By recognizing that we have similarities with other animals, we may recognize that they have a place in nature just as we do.