Presentation on theme: "WHAT IS ANTHROPOLOGY? EXPLORING THE FOUR FIELDS OF ANTHROPOLOGY Introductory Lecture Anthropology 100: Survey of Anthropology."— Presentation transcript:
WHAT IS ANTHROPOLOGY? EXPLORING THE FOUR FIELDS OF ANTHROPOLOGY Introductory Lecture Anthropology 100: Survey of Anthropology
LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. Develop an understanding of anthropology and how the subfields of anthropology interrelate 2. Develop an understanding for the importance of anthropology in today’s world 3. Practice thinking like an anthropologist
ANTHROPOLOGY anthro = human ology = the study of Study of the past and present biological and cultural variation within the human species
ANTHROPOLOGY Major question addressed within anthropology: What Does It Mean To Be Human?
DISTINCTIVE WAY OF STUDYING HUMANS Unique Perspective of What Does It Mean to Be Human: 1. Holistic Emphasizes the functional relation between parts and the whole Holism= Integration Past Present Language Culture Genetics Anatomy
DISTINCTIVE WAY OF STUDYING HUMANS Unique Perspective of What Does It Mean to Be Human: 2. Comparative Compare patterns of variation Biologically and Culturally Consideration of similarities & differences Coming of Age Ceremonies Left: Korean; Right: Maasi (Kenya) Skeletal Features Left: Chimpanzee; Right: Modern Human
DISTINCTIVE WAY OF STUDYING HUMANS Unique Perspective of What Does It Mean to Be Human: 3. Field-based Data collection; direct contact Cultural Anthropology Mursi women in Ethiopia Linguistic Anthropology Project on Beaver Language Primatology: Baboon Dominance Calls Archaeology in the Middle East
DISTINCTIVE WAY OF STUDYING HUMANS Unique Perspective of What Does It Mean to Be Human: 4. Evolutionary Observations placed in temporal framework Consider change over time Evolution Humans Primates
CONCEPT OF CULTURE What is culture? Set of learned behavior and ideas that humans beings acquire as members of a society Humans are biocultural organisms Triangle of Adaptation Biological and cultural factor influence the world around us Environment Culture Biology
ANTHROPOLOGY: CROSS-DISCIPLINARY DISCIPLINE Spans the social sciences, natural sciences, and humanities Diversity with the discipline : 4 subfields Biological (Physical) Anthropology Cultural Anthropology Linguistic Anthropology Archaeology Holistic Applied Anthropology
BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY Human beings as biological organisms Aims to discover what characteristics make humans different from other organisms and what characteristics they share Attention focused on patterns of variation & adaptation Paleoanthropology Primatology Dental Anthropology & Bioarchaeology
BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY Research – What Can It Tell Us? Allocation of energy – breastfeeding, health & disease, primates Skeletal anatomy – disease, stress, activity patterns, trauma, forensic anthropology Susceptibility to disease – access to resources, lower immunity, genetics Lesion on a rib with M tuberculosis DNA
BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY Research – What Can It Tell Us?
CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY Variation in beliefs and behaviors of members of different human groups Shaped by sets of learned behaviors and ideas that human beings acquire as members of society Study all human societies Urban & Rural, Developed & Developing, Western & Non- Western Conduct fieldwork: Participant observation & Ethnography
Cultural conflict – war, ethnicity, politics, aftermath of conflict Subsistence patterns – strategies, land ownership, environment CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY Research – What Can It Tell Us? Social organization – comparison of different forms of human social life, kinship patterns, social groupings
LINGUISTIC ANTHROPOLOGY Study of human language Language: system of arbitrary vocal symbols used to encode one’s experience of the world and of others Broader cultural, historical and/or biological contexts
Research – What Can It Tell Us? Multi-lingualism – usage of language, circumstances, education Language socialization – children, new language, cross-cultural studies Power and Control – linguistic dimensions
ARCHAEOLOGY Study of past societies and their cultures, especially the material remains of the past Examine evidence of past human cultural activity Artifacts Garbage heaps Postholes Settlement patterns Plant pollen Excavation Sigatoka Valley, Fiji Amber Beads from Stonehenge
ARCHAEOLOGY Research – What Can It Tell Us? Human-Environmental Interactions – use of the environment, climate change, paleoclimates Garage heaps – past and contemporary; consumption patterns Agricultural production – emergence of the first agricultural complexes
IN-CLASS ACTIVITY Four-Field Approach Worksheet In this activity, students will: Describe the distinguishing features of anthropology Identify the four subfields of anthropology We will do one example as a class The other two examples will be worked on in small-groups. Be prepared to share your responses with the class.
Economics Local and regional spheres of interaction Labor distribution Subsistence Language use in trading and business Differences in languages among SES Health consequences (skeletal & living populations) Non-human primate societies Local / regional trade Globalization Development & effects on traditional societies Subsistence regime Biological Anthropology Cultural Anthropology Linguistic Anthropology Archaeology
ANTHROPOLOGY - SUMMARY Anthropology is devoted to the broad, “holistic” study of humankind, to the understanding and explanation of human beings in all of their diverse aspects at all times and places