2 What We Will LearnHow does anthropology differ from other social and behavioral sciences?What is the four- field approach to the discipline of anthropology?How can anthropology help solve social problems?What is meant by “cultural relativism,” and why is it important?What skills will students develop from the study of anthropology?
3 What is Anthropology? Anthropology is the study of people their originstheir development, and contemporary variationswherever and whenever they have been found.
5 Branches of Anthropology: Archaeology Historical archaeologyPrehistoric archaeologyContract archaeologyApplied archaeology
6 Branches of Anthropology: Anthropological Linguistics Historical linguisticsDescriptive linguisticsEthnolinguisticsSociolinguisticsApplied linguistics
7 Branches of Anthropology: Cultural Anthropology Economic anthropologyPsychological anthropologyEducational anthropologyMedical anthropologyUrban anthropologyPolitical anthropologyApplied cultural anthropology
8 Physical Anthropology Study of humans from a biological perspective.Areas of investigation:Paleoanthropology - emergence of humans and how humans have evolved.Human variation - how and why the physical traits of human populations vary.
9 PrimatologyStudy of anatomy and social behavior of nonhuman primate species: gorillas, baboons, and chimpanzees.Effort to learn about human evolution by studying contemporary nonhuman primates in similar environments.Tool-making skills found in chimpanzees help explain human strategies for adapting to the environment.
10 ArchaeologyStudy people from the past by analyzing material culture they leave behind:Artifacts Example: tools, arrowheads.Features Examples: foundations and fireplaces.Ecofacts Examples: bones, seeds, and wood.
11 Archaeologists Historic archaeologists: Reconstruct the cultures of people who used writing and about whom historical documents have been written.Prehistoric archaeologists:Study the human record of cultures that existed before the development of writing.
12 Anthropological Linguistics Historical linguisticsStudy of emergence of language and how specific languages have diverged over time.Descriptive linguisticsStudy of sound systems, grammatical systems, and the meanings attached to words in specific languages.
13 Anthropological Linguistics EthnolinguisticsStudy the relationship between language and culture.SociolinguisticsStudy the relationship between language and social relations.
14 Cultural Anthropology Areas of SpecializationUrban anthropologyMedical anthropologyEducational anthropologyPsychological anthropology
15 HolismA distinguishing feature of the discipline of anthropology is its holistic approach to the study of human groups.Anthropology involves both biological and sociocultural aspects of humanity.The time frame goes from the earliest beginnings of humans to the present.Anthropology studies all varieties of people wherever they may be found.
16 HolismAnthropology studies many different aspects of human experience:Family structureMarital regulationsHouse constructionMethods of conflict resolutionMeans of livelihoodReligious beliefsLanguageSpace usage, and art
17 Responding to Unfamiliar Cultures EthnocentricallyResponding from the context of one’s own cultural perspective.Cultural relativistResponding within the context of the other culture.
18 Limits of Cultural Relativism If every society is unique and can only be evaluated in terms of its own standards, a cross-cultural comparison impossible.There is no behavior that could be considered immoral if the people who practice it consider it acceptable or it functions for the well-being of the society.
19 Emic Versus Etic Approaches The emic approach (insider view) seeks to describe another culture in terms of the categories, concepts, and perceptions of the people being studied.In the etic approach (outsider view), anthropologists use their own categories and concepts to describe the culture under analysis.
20 Value of Anthropology Individual The study of different cultures provides a better understanding of one’s own culture and develops valuable leadership skills.SocietalUnderstanding different cultures can contribute to the solution of pressing societal problems.