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ELL Strategies to Improve Learning

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Presentation on theme: "ELL Strategies to Improve Learning"— Presentation transcript:

1 ELL Strategies to Improve Learning

2 What Makes Content Areas Easy or Hard for ELL Students?

3 Math Easy Some notation is the same Some is “hands-on”
Some concepts transfer Lower volume of written material Computation uses less “language” Hard Some notation is different Some processes are different Word problems, vocabulary Concepts are often abstract

4 Science Easy Demonstrations, “hands-on” Visuals, pictures, diagrams
Hard Cause-effect, if-then relationships Hypothesis-testing Volume of vocabulary Terms with technical & non-technical meanings (table, kingdom, power, etc.)

5 Social Studies Easy Interesting to different cultures
Opportunities to incorporate ELL students culture Hard Technical & non-technical terms (subjects, power, etc.) Volume of reading Cultural assumptions are not always explicit Abstract concepts

6 Literature Easy Interesting to student from another culture
Opportunities to incorporate ELL students culture Hard Volume of reading requires analysis & evaluation Required background knowledge Variety of language used (poetry, Shakespeare, root words, etc.)

7 BICS versus CALP Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills
Skills involved in everyday communication; listening, speaking, carrying on basic conversation, understanding speakers & getting basic needs met. Pronunciation Grammar Vocabulary Not related to academic achievement Universal across all native speakers Attained after 2 or 3 years in the host country

8 BICS versus CALP Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
Skills that are needed to succeed in the academic classroom; problem solving, inferring, analyzing, synthesizing & predicting. Language of the classroom; decontextualized Language outside of the immediate interpersonal context CALP in 1st & 2nd language overlaps in spite of differences in language Related to literacy skills Attained between 5 to 7 years in the host country

9 BICS versus CALP Cognitively Undemanding (BICS) Content Embedded A C
B D Content Reduced Cognitively Demanding (CALP)

10 BICS versus CALP Quadrant A
Following directions, face-to-face conversation, getting absence excuse, buying popcorn, oral presentations, art, music & PE classes Quadrant B Demonstrations, experiments, audio-visual lessons, basic math facts, projects & activities, health instruction, social studies, science experiments

11 BICS versus CALP Quadrant C
Telephone conversation, note on the refrigerator, written directions, instructions without diagrams or illustrations Quadrant D Standardized tests, reading & writing, math concepts & applications, abstract concepts, lecture with few illustrations, social science texts, mainstream English texts

12 BICS versus CALP Cognitively Undemanding (BICS) Content Embedded A C
B D Content Reduced Cognitively Demanding (CALP)

13 Three Principles Which Help ELL Students in Content Classrooms
Increase Comprehensibility Increase Interaction Increase Thinking Skills

14 Increase Comprehensibility
Provide additional/non-verbal clues (pictures, objects, demonstrations, gestures, intonation cues, etc.) Share lesson objectives in “student language” Break new material into smaller chunks with frequent comprehension checks

15 Increasing Comprehensibility
Use a lesson sequence which proceeds: From prior knowledge to new knowledge From the concrete to the abstract From oral language to texts From more contextual support to less contextual support Use Contextual Support (visuals, hands-on, non-verbal clues, etc.) to communicate the overall message, then correlate the message with the language.

16 Increase Comprehensibility
Did I make the instruction understandable to my students by providing clear, meaningful context & reinforcement? Visual aids, labels, classroom routines, realia, graphic organizers, previewing content, activating prior knowledge, role-plays, theme-based instruction, chants, songs, etc.

17 Increase Interaction One-on-one Interaction Small Group Interaction
Provide opportunities for active participation to share ideas & language in smaller setting

18 Increase Interaction Think-Write-Pair-Share Numbered Heads Together
Jigsaw Peer Tutoring Pair Assignments Cooperative Projects

19 Increasing Interaction
Did I give students multiple opportunities to practice the content, to build understanding, & to improve their command of the language through peer interaction? Pair work, think-write-pair-share, cooperative learning, peer editing, shared writing, shared reading, dialogue journals, choral response, etc.

20 Increase Thinking Skills
Think Alouds How do you know that? Why do you think that? Graphic Organizers to show relationships Use of Cognitive Strategies (imagery, summarization, making inferences, transfer, deduction, classification, grouping, note-taking, elaboration

21 Increasing Thinking Skills
Did I provide students with adequate exposure to & practice with higher order thinking skills & learning strategies? Think alouds, explicit instruction, graphic organizers, summarizing, making inferences, analyzing, evaluating, comparing, contrasting, responding to how & why questions, etc.

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