2 What Makes Content Areas Easy or Hard for ELL Students?
3 Math Easy Some notation is the same Some is “hands-on” Some concepts transferLower volume of written materialComputation uses less “language”HardSome notation is differentSome processes are differentWord problems, vocabularyConcepts are often abstract
5 Social Studies Easy Interesting to different cultures Opportunities to incorporate ELL students cultureHardTechnical & non-technical terms (subjects, power, etc.)Volume of readingCultural assumptions are not always explicitAbstract concepts
6 Literature Easy Interesting to student from another culture Opportunities to incorporate ELL students cultureHardVolume of reading requires analysis & evaluationRequired background knowledgeVariety of language used (poetry, Shakespeare, root words, etc.)
7 BICS versus CALP Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills Skills involved in everyday communication; listening, speaking, carrying on basic conversation, understanding speakers & getting basic needs met.PronunciationGrammarVocabularyNot related to academic achievementUniversal across all native speakersAttained after 2 or 3 years in the host country
8 BICS versus CALP Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency Skills that are needed to succeed in the academic classroom; problem solving, inferring, analyzing, synthesizing & predicting.Language of the classroom; decontextualizedLanguage outside of the immediate interpersonal contextCALP in 1st & 2nd language overlaps in spite of differences in languageRelated to literacy skillsAttained between 5 to 7 years in the host country
9 BICS versus CALP Cognitively Undemanding (BICS) Content Embedded A C B DContentReducedCognitively Demanding (CALP)
10 BICS versus CALP Quadrant A Following directions, face-to-face conversation, getting absence excuse, buying popcorn, oral presentations, art, music & PE classesQuadrant BDemonstrations, experiments, audio-visual lessons, basic math facts, projects & activities, health instruction, social studies, science experiments
11 BICS versus CALP Quadrant C Telephone conversation, note on the refrigerator, written directions, instructions without diagrams or illustrationsQuadrant DStandardized tests, reading & writing, math concepts & applications, abstract concepts, lecture with few illustrations, social science texts, mainstream English texts
12 BICS versus CALP Cognitively Undemanding (BICS) Content Embedded A C B DContentReducedCognitively Demanding (CALP)
13 Three Principles Which Help ELL Students in Content Classrooms Increase ComprehensibilityIncrease InteractionIncrease Thinking Skills
14 Increase Comprehensibility Provide additional/non-verbal clues (pictures, objects, demonstrations, gestures, intonation cues, etc.)Share lesson objectives in “student language”Break new material into smaller chunks with frequent comprehension checks
15 Increasing Comprehensibility Use a lesson sequence which proceeds:From prior knowledge to new knowledgeFrom the concrete to the abstractFrom oral language to textsFrom more contextual support to less contextual supportUse Contextual Support (visuals, hands-on, non-verbal clues, etc.) to communicate the overall message, then correlate the message with the language.
16 Increase Comprehensibility Did I make the instruction understandable to my students by providing clear, meaningful context & reinforcement?Visual aids, labels, classroom routines, realia, graphic organizers, previewing content, activating prior knowledge, role-plays, theme-based instruction, chants, songs, etc.
17 Increase Interaction One-on-one Interaction Small Group Interaction Provide opportunities for active participation to share ideas & language in smaller setting
19 Increasing Interaction Did I give students multiple opportunities to practice the content, to build understanding, & to improve their command of the language through peer interaction?Pair work, think-write-pair-share, cooperative learning, peer editing, shared writing, shared reading, dialogue journals, choral response, etc.
20 Increase Thinking Skills Think AloudsHow do you know that? Why do you think that?Graphic Organizers to show relationshipsUse of Cognitive Strategies (imagery, summarization, making inferences, transfer, deduction, classification, grouping, note-taking, elaboration
21 Increasing Thinking Skills Did I provide students with adequate exposure to & practice with higher order thinking skills & learning strategies?Think alouds, explicit instruction, graphic organizers, summarizing, making inferences, analyzing, evaluating, comparing, contrasting, responding to how & why questions, etc.