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PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook 1e. Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved. Chapter 12 Communicating with Followers
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–2 Chapter Objectives After completing this chapter, you should be able to: Understand the difference between a transmission model and an exchange model of communication. Critically analyze the traditional approaches to communication problems and their solutions. Discuss the barriers to effective oral and written communications. Evaluate the argument that language constructs rather than reflects the world. Reflect on the value and difficulties of communication skills for leaders.
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–3 The Importance of Communication Communication is essential to leadership. The process of leadership depends critically on the mutual communication between, and influence of, leaders and followers. The leaders vision must be communicated to followers if the latter are to help make the vision a reality. Business leaders spend most of their time communicating; networking to secure support for actions and ensuring that subordinates carry them out.
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–4 The Role of Communication in the Leadership Process Figure 12.1
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–5 Reflective Question Reflective Question Look again at our three-dimensional leadership model. Why is communication so important to the leadership process?
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–6 Models of Communication Transmission Model Language, technologies, and other media are simply devices or channels for telling somebody something. The transfer of information from one person (active transmitter) to another (passive receiver). Exchange Model Exchanging information with subordinates, asking them for ideas and constructive criticism, and having conversations about strategy. Both parties actively transmit and receive knowledge of value to the other party.
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–7 The Transmission and Exchange Models of Communication Figure 12.2
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–8 View CD Go to the CD-ROM and click on the case studies. Watch the Leadership Style section of the case studies. Listen to how the leaders and managers explain their success and what they consider to be the role of communication in achieving the agreement of subordinates. While you are listening to the dialogue, watch the actions of the people in the video, and consider how much of their activity is rooted in some form of communication.
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–9 Problems with Communications Speech as Communication: Listeners become bored and lose their focus due to the slowness of speakers. Listeners retain only a very small percentage of spoken communications. Effective Communication Leaders should concentrate on communicating ideas rather than facts. Listeners are more responsive to emotional rather than intellectual queries from leaders.
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–10 Leadership Communication Styles Source: Adapted from Stech, E. L. (1983). Leadership Communication. Chicago: Nelson-Hall. Table 12.4
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–11 Steps to Effective Communication Skills Read the situation Engage attention Make the meaning clear Paint the background Fill in the picture Bring your story to life Look for clues Check understanding Say whats on your mind
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–12 Steps to Effective Listening Skills Listen with an open mind Get behind the words Feed back the highlights to maintain mutual understanding Get to the heart of things Stay on track
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–13 Effective Organizational Communication Managers must be committed to the importance of communication. Communication should be two-way whenever possible. Communication should be face-to-face whenever possible. Messages should be structured to meet the needs of the audience. Technology should be used to speed up communication.
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–14 Benefits of Communication Skills It enables the sharing of feelings and ideas. It enables the sharing of information. It correlates with subordinate satisfaction. It correlates with productivity and customer service. It enables leaders to persuade followers.
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–15 Communication Wheel Structure Figure 12.3
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–16 All-Channel Communication Structure Figure 12.5
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–17 Chain and Y Communication Structures Figure 12.6
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–18 A Cohesive Communication Network Figure 12.7
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–19 Barriers to Communication Serial Communication Loss of (or change in) meaning as messages pass along and through the chain of communicators (transmitters and receivers). Status Differences Differences between the interests of managers and employees, the formality of the relationship, and competition between managers.
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–20 Barriers to Communication Social Conformity The pressure of groupthinkthe tendency to support the opinion of the group even when that opinion appears to contradict reality or rationality Spatial Distance Problems that arise from the constraints of physical locality in which the distance between people determines the form, number, and effect of communications.
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–21 Barriers to Communication Defensiveness A self-protection mechanism in which the listeners responses to the speakers statements are based on what the listener perceives the speaker expects to or prefers to hear as a response. Cultural Differences Cultures have differential preferences for ambiguity and precision in language, making it important for leaders to try to understand why people say what they say.
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–22 Reflective Question Reflective Question Review the passage in the textbook (page 297) describing the statements of John Roberts, CEO of the British Post Office to the select committee of the British House of Commons. If you were in Robertss place, how would you have communicated the organizations position? Kotters (1982) research suggests that networking (communication) and agenda-setting are two tasks crucial to a leaders success. Could John Roberts communication problems stem from his lack of a clear agenda? How might these two tasks be related?
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–23 View CD Work through the CD-ROM section on gender influence in all the case studies. To what extent does gender make a difference in the way people communicate and in the success of that communication? Do men and women tell different forms of stories? If so, which do you think might be more successful?
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–24 The Golden Triangle of Good Communication Accuracy Clarity Brevity Listener Interest
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–25 Interrogative And Declarative Approaches To Communication Interrogative approach Creating a dialoguea non-argumentative two-way form of communication that persuades followers to assent to a conclusion. Declarative approach Engaging in a monologuea one-way form of communication with followers that may or may not have its intended effect.
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–26 Language as Reflector or Constructor Traditional View of Language A mechanism for describing the world around usa reflector of reality. Constructivist View of Language Language is not a passive and neutral carrier of information about reality but, instead, an active constructor of that reality (or making the truth).
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–27 A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words? Figure 12.8
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–28 Reflective Question Reflective Question How important is it for managers (and management researchers) to communicate to their clients, shareholders, and employees (and the academic community) that they are avant garde by adopting new, more fashionable terminology? Can you think of any management terms that are no longer considered fashionable, or cool?
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