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By John Weide with modifications by Ken Costello.

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Presentation on theme: "By John Weide with modifications by Ken Costello."— Presentation transcript:

1 By John Weide with modifications by Ken Costello

2 There is a systematic process in the naming of inorganic acids. Probably the most significant problem is the variation of charges for the negative ions. For example Cl -1 chloride ion NO 3 -1 nitrate ion SO 4 -2 sulfate ion PO 4 -3 phosphate ion H H H2H2 H3H3 Na Na 2 Na 3

3 Another significant problem is that many of the other polyatomic ions with the same endings on their names have a different number of oxygen atoms attached to the central atom. For example chlorateClO 3 -1 sulfateSO 4 -2 phosphate PO 4 -3 acetateC 2 H 3 O 2 -1

4 »ClO 4 -1 perchlorate »ClO 3 -1 chlorate »ClO 2 -1 chlorite »ClO -1 hypochlorite »Cl -1 chloride (not a polyatomic ion) »ClO 4 -1 perchlorate »ClO 3 -1 chlorate »ClO 2 -1 chlorite »ClO -1 hypochlorite »Cl -1 chloride »ClO 4 -1 perchlorate »ClO 3 -1 chlorate »ClO 2 -1 chlorite »ClO -1 hypochlorite »Cl -1 chloride »ClO 4 -1 perchlorate »ClO 3 -1 chlorate »ClO 2 -1 chlorite »ClO -1 hypochlorite »Cl -1 chloride All the ions contain one chlorine atom but a varying number of oxygen atoms All have a minus one charge Rather than memorize all the polyatomic ions it is much more useful to learn their trends in the naming scheme. There are numerous patterns within a homologous series. For example All the names contain chlor indicating that the ion contains chlorine

5 The oxy-ions of chlorine, bromine and iodine all have these trends in common. Look for them below…… perchlorate ClO 4 -1 chlorateClO 3 -1 chloriteClO 2 -1 hypochloriteClO -1 PerbromateBrO 4 -1 BromateBrO 3 -1 BromiteBrO 2 -1 HypobromiteBrO -1 PeriodateIO 4 -1 IodateIO 3 -1 IoditeIO 2 -1 HypoioditeIO -1 The most productive method of committing these ions to memory is first memorize the ones that have the _____ate ending. This is the most common ending.

6 POLYATOMIC IONS Ions with -1 charge perbromateBrO 4 -1 bromateBrO 3 -1 bromiteBrO 2 -1 hypobromiteBrO -1 perchlorateClO 4 -1 chlorateClO 3 -1 chloriteClO 2 -1 hypochloriteClO -1 periodateIO 4 -1 iodateIO 3 -1 ioditeIO 2 -1 hypoioditeIO -1 nitrateNO 3 -1 nitriteNO 2 -1 hydroxideOH -1 cyanideCN -1 thiocyanateSCN -1 acetateC 2 H 3 O 2 -1 permanganateMnO 4 -1 bicarbonateHCO 3 -1 Ions with a -2 Charge carbonateCO 3 -2 phthalateC 8 H 4 O 4 -2 sulfateSO 4 -2 sulfiteSO 3 -2 chromateCrO 4 -2 dichromateCr 2 O 7 -2 oxalateC 2 O 4 -2 peroxideO 2 -2 Ions with a -3 Charge phosphatePO 4 -3 phosphitePO 3 -3 arsenateAsO 4 -3 Ions with +1 charge ammonium ionNH 4 +1

7 Salt metal polyatomic ion # Oxygen atoms ________ per_____ate4 ________ _____ate3 ________ _____ite2 ________ hypo_____ite1 ________ _____ide0 The table below shows the prefixes and suffixes that tell the number of oxygen atoms present in the negative ion.

8 REMEMBER the aqueous acid names are simply an extension of the salt names.

9 To transform the metal per____ate salt into its corresponding aqueous acid name: 1) The name of the metal is dropped 2) The -ate ending is replaced with –ic 3) The word acid is added to the name For example: potassium perchlorate > perchloric acid KClO 4(s) > HClO 4 (aq) Aqueous Acid hydrogen polyatomic ion per_____ic acid _____ic acid _____ous acid hypo______ous acid hydro______ic acid Salt metal polyatomic ion ________ per_____ate ________ _____ate ________ _____ite ________ hypo_____ite ________ _____ide

10 To transform the metal _____ate salt into its corresponding aqueous acid name: 1) The name of the metal is dropped 2) The -ate ending is replaced with –ic 3) The word acid is added to the name For example: sodium acetate > acetic acid NaC 2 H 3 O 2(s) > HC 2 H 3 O 2(aq) Salt metal polyatomic ion ________ per_____ate ________ _____ate ________ _____ite ________ hypo_____ite ________ _____ide Aqueous Acid hydrogen polyatomic ion per_____ic acid _____ic acid _____ous acid hypo______ous acid hydro______ic acid

11 Salt metal polyatomic ion ________ per_____ate ________ _____ate ________ _____ite ________ hypo_____ite ________ _____ide Aqueous Acid hydrogen polyatomic ion per_____ic acid _____ic acid _____ous acid hypo______ous acid hydro______ic acid To transform the metal_____ite salt into its corresponding aqueous acid name: 1) The name of the metal is dropped 2) The -ite ending is replaced with –ous 3) The word acid is added to the name For example: ammonium nitrite > nitrous acid NH 4 NO 2(s) > HNO 2(aq)

12 Salt metal polyatomic ion ________ per_____ate ________ _____ate ________ _____ite ________ hypo_____ite ________ _____ide Aqueous Acid hydrogen polyatomic ion per_____ic acid _____ic acid _____ous acid hypo______ous acid hydro______ic acid To transform the metal hypo_____ite salt into its corresponding aqueous acid name: 1) The name of the metal is dropped 2) The -ite ending is replaced with –ous 3) The word acid is added to the name For example: lithium hypoiodite > hypoiodous acid LiIO (s) > HIO (aq)

13 Salt metal polyatomic ion ________ per_____ate ________ _____ate ________ _____ite ________ hypo_____ite ________ _____ide Aqueous Acid hydrogen polyatomic ion per_____ic acid _____ic acid _____ous acid hypo______ous acid hydro______ic acid To transform the metal _____ide salt into its corresponding aqueous acid name: 1) The name of the metal is dropped 2) The -ide ending is replaced with hydro____ic 3) The word acid is added to the name For example: silver bromide > hydrobromic acid AgBr (s) > HBr (aq)

14 Example #1- Names to Formulas H ClO 3 2. Add hydrogen ions 1.Determine the formula & charge of the polyatomic ion Final Formula chloric acid (aq) chlorate Balance charge with ions 4. Add the subscript: (aq) =0

15 Examples #1- Formulas to Names 2. Determine the ion and its acid ending. 1. The hydrogen out front & the (aq) subscript indicates an acid Final Name HBrO 2(aq) bromous acid bromite ____________ acid

16 Practice Problem #1 HIO 4(aq) Choose the correct name for the compound 1. iodic acid 2. iodous acid 3. periodic acid 4. hydrogen periodate 5. none of the above next problem Ion list

17 Practice Problem #2 hydrobromic acid Choose the correct formula for the compound 1. HBrO (aq) 2. HBr (aq) 3. HBrO 3(aq) 4. HBrO 2(aq) 5. none of the above next problem Ion list

18 PRACTICE Refer to pages for practice problems related to nomenclature. Refer to page 15 for list of common polyatomic ions. Refer to page 12 for charges Or Use Periodic Table for charges

19 POLYATOMIC IONS Ions with -1 charge perbromateBrO 4 -1 bromateBrO 3 -1 bromiteBrO 2 -1 hypobromiteBrO -1 perchlorateClO 4 -1 chlorateClO 3 -1 chloriteClO 2 -1 hypochloriteClO -1 periodateIO 4 -1 iodateIO 3 -1 ioditeIO 2 -1 hypoioditeIO -1 nitrateNO 3 -1 nitriteNO 2 -1 hydroxideOH -1 cyanideCN -1 thiocyanateSCN -1 acetateC 2 H 3 O 2 -1 permanganateMnO 4 -1 bicarbonateHCO 3 -1 Ions with a -2 Charge carbonateCO 3 -2 phthalateC 8 H 4 O 4 -2 sulfateSO 4 -2 sulfiteSO 3 -2 chromateCrO 4 -2 dichromateCr 2 O 7 -2 oxalateC 2 O 4 -2 peroxideO 2 -2 Ions with a -3 Charge phosphatePO 4 -3 phosphitePO 3 -3 arsenateAsO 4 -3 Ions with +1 charge ammonium ionNH 4 +1 return


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