2 There are 3 types of RNA:messenger RNA (mRNA) – The RNA that brings information from the DNA in the nucleus to the cytoplasm.transfer RNA (tRNA) –Transports amino acids to the ribosome to be assembled into a protein.Ribsomal RNA (rRNA)- Ribosomes, made of rRNA clamp onto the mRNA and use its information to assemble the amino acids
3 TRANSCRIPTIONTranscription is the process where the DNA code is copied onto a strand of messenger RNA (mRNA). This occurs in the nucleus.
4 Steps of Transcription: 1st StepEnzymes “unzip” DNA
5 Steps of Transcription: 2nd StepRNA nucleotides pair with complementary DNA nucleotides on one of the DNA strands.
6 Steps of Transcription: 3rd StepWhen base pairing is completed mRNA is formed and the DNA strands rejoin.Each set of 3 nitrogen bases on mRNA is a codon. Each codon codes for an amino acid.
7 Steps of Transcription: 4th stepOnce mRNA is made it leaves the nucleus and it attaches to a ribosome (made of rRNA) in the cytoplasm.
8 Translation:Translation - process of converting the info in a sequence of nitrogen bases in mRNA into a sequence of amino acids.Occurs in the ribosomes (made of rRNA) in the cytoplasm.
9 More Information on tRNA Role of tRNA is to bring amino acids to the ribosomes, so proteins can be built.How do they do this?tRNA has the anticodon, which is a nucleotide triplet which binds to the complimentary codon on the mRNAtRNA only carries amino acids that the anticodon speifies.
10 Steps of translation include: tRNA with its amino acid attaches to a ribsome (made of rRNA).tRNA (carrying specific amino acid) has an anticodon that bonds with the first mRNA codon.When a signal is given ribosome (made of rRNA) slides along the mRNA to the next codon
11 Steps of translation include: New tRNA molecule carries an amino acid pairs with the second mRNA codonEnzyme joins the amino acids by forming a peptide bondThe process continues until the protein has been completely made.