Presentation on theme: " DNA is the blueprint for life – it contains your genetic information The order of the bases in a segment of DNA (__________) codes for a particular."— Presentation transcript:
DNA is the blueprint for life – it contains your genetic information The order of the bases in a segment of DNA (__________) codes for a particular protein; these proteins then determine your traits How do you get from a 4-letter code to an entire organism? _______________________ A GENE IS A SEGMENT OF DNA THAT CODES FOR A PROTEIN. NOT ALL DNA CODES FOR PROTEINS.
In the first step of protein synthesis, the code of DNA is transcribed onto a molecule of RNA – this step of the process is known as ____________________ DNA is ___ ____ to leave the nucleus (but proteins are made in the ribosome), so the information in DNA must be transferred to a molecule of ____________
RNA =_______________ _____________________ It contains a ________ sugar (instead of Deoxyribose) It is a _______ ________ (which makes it half the size of DNA) RNA does NOT contain the base Thymine(T); instead, it contains the base _____________________
In transcription, a segment of DNA (gene) is unwound to expose the bases The DNA is used as a template to make the strand of RNA RNA nucleotides arrange themselves in order, according to the order of bases on the DNA strand to make a strand of ______________________ (mRNA) This mRNA will then leave the nucleus and travel through the cytoplasm to the _____________ to direct the making of the protein If the order of bases on a strand of DNA is ATCATG, what would its complementary mRNA be?____________________
Remember, proteins (polypeptides)are made of ________________ ! There are 20 different amino acids that serve as the building blocks of proteins. In translation, the mRNA travels to the ribosome, where it meets up with the _____________________________ (tRNA) The mRNA and the tRNA meet in the _____________ (site of protein synthesis) – the ribosome is made up of a third type of RNA, known as __________________________ (rRNA)
Transfer RNA is the molecule that carries the _____________ to the ribosome to be added to the protein tRNA “reads” the code on the mRNA to make sure that the amino acids are assembled in the correct order On one end of the tRNA molecule, there is a special three-base sequence, known as the ______________________ This anti-codon on the tRNA will bond only with is matching 3-base sequence on the mRNA strand (which is called a __________________ ). If the mRNA codon is AUG, what tRNA anti-codon will bond to it? ______________ Transfer RNA is an RNA molecule that is ‘bent’ into a unique shape. On one end it carries a specific amino acid, and on the other end is the anti-codon that will determine where in the protein chain that amino acid is placed
So, the tRNAs, each carrying an amino acid, come to the _______________ and hunt for the correct place on the mRNA strand to put their amino acid Once they find the correct codon on the mRNA, they leave their amino acid behind, adding it to the growing chain This process repeats, assembling the correct sequence of amino acids, until a ____________ codon is reached A STOP codon is a 3-base sequence on the mRNA that tells the ribosome to stop adding amino acids to the chain The amino acids are bonded together using ________________, and a protein (polypeptide) is made! The ___________________ of Biology: › DNA RNA PROTEIN TRAIT