Presentation on theme: "CFE Higher Biology DNA and the Genome Translation."— Presentation transcript:
CFE Higher Biology DNA and the Genome Translation
CFE Higher Biology DNA and the Genome Genetic code Translation is the synthesis of protein following the code with in the mature mRNA transcript. The mRNA is made of sequences of three nucleotides (a triplet of bases) called codons. Each codon is code for one amino acid.
CFE Higher Biology DNA and the Genome tRNA A further type of RNA is found in the cell’s cytoplasm. This is called tRNA (transfer RNA) and is made of a single chain of nucleotides. It is folded into a 3D structure, held together by hydrogen bonds.
CFE Higher Biology DNA and the Genome Each tRNA has an attachment site for a specific amino acid and a triplet of bases known as an anticodon. Many different types of tRNA are present in cell, one or more for each type of amino acid.
CFE Higher Biology DNA and the Genome The tRNA picks up its appropriate amino acid and takes it to the ribosome to be matched with the mRNA.
CFE Higher Biology DNA and the Genome Ribosomes are small, roughly spherical structures found in all cells. They contain the enzymes essential for protein synthesis. The ribosome’s function is to bring the tRNA molecules bearing amino acids in contact with the mRNA.
CFE Higher Biology DNA and the Genome Site P – holds the tRNA carrying the growing polypeptide chain. Site A – holds the tRNA carrying the next amino acid to be joined to the chain. Site E – releases the empty tRNA once it has dropped off its amino acid.
CFE Higher Biology DNA and the Genome The translation process 1. The ribosome binds to the 5’ end of the mRNA so that the start codon (AUG) is in site P. 2. Next a tRNA carrying the amino acid methionine becomes attached to site P.
CFE Higher Biology DNA and the Genome 3. The mRNA codon at site A bonds complementary anticodon on the appropriate tRNA bearing the correct amino acid. 4. A peptide bond then forms between these two amino acids. 5. The ribosome then moves along one codon. 6. The tRNA from Site P is move to Site E and released. 7. Steps 3-6 then repeat until it reaches a stop codon.