2 Chemical Make-up of Lipids Fats belong to a larger group of compounds called lipids, which include both fats and oils and cholesterol.Lipids are found in foods in the form of fatty acids.Fatty acids are chemical chains that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms (no nitrogen).
3 Types of Fatty AcidsFatty acids that have as many hydrogen atoms as they can hold are called saturated fatty acids.Fatty acids that have fewer hydrogen atoms than they can hold are called unsaturated fatty acids.
5 Types of Fatty AcidsUnsaturated fatty acids may be monounsaturated (or missing one hydrogen atom) or polyunsaturated (or missing more than one hydrogen atom).Most foods contain a mixture of these different types of fatty acids.
6 Fats in Our FoodsThe fats in meats and dairy products are high in saturated fat.Plant sources of saturated fat: coconut (oil and milk), palm oil, cocoa butterOlive oil, canola oils, avocado and nuts are good sources of monounsaturated fatty acids.Nuts, Safflower, corn, soybean, and some fish oils are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids.Most fats high in saturated fats are solid at room temperature.Most fats high in unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature.
7 Trans Fatty AcidsHydrogenation is the process that turns liquid fats (or unsaturated fats) into solid fats (or saturated fats).When oils are hydrogenated trans fatty acids are created.Trans fats are found in margarine, shortening, commercially fried foods (french fries, onion rings, fried chicken), and some processed snack foods—updated!Diets high in trans fats have been linked to heart disease, high cholesterol and obesity.Microwave popcorn, cake mix, canned frosting, packaged cookies, pancake/waffle mix (Bisquick), breakfast sandwiches, crackers, slim jims, frozen entrees,
8 Trans Fats in Food— How do you know? Check Ingredients list—avoid “hydrogenated”, “partially hydrogenated” or “shortening”“0 trans fat” does not always mean 0FDA allows manufacturers to label trans fat as “0 grams” if amt is < 0.5g/serving
10 CholesterolCholesterol is a fat-like substance found in the body that helps make up skin tissue, aids in transportation of fatty acids in the body, and helps the body produce hormones.High cholesterol diets lead to clogged arteries and heart disease.Monounsaturated fats and Omega 3 fatty acids are shown to help reduce blood cholesterol levels.
11 Cholesterol Sources There are two types (or sources) of cholesterol. Dietary cholesterol comes from eating animal foods (never plant foods).Blood cholesterol (made by your body) circulates throughout your body.
12 Functions of FatThe role of fat in our diet includes energy (although carbohydrates are a better source), carry fat soluble vitamins, make foods taste good, make foods tender, and fats help you feel full.Fats also help your body make hormones, store energy, cushion your internal organs, and provide a layer of insulation.
13 Visible and Invisible Fat Visible fats are those you can see like butter or margarine.Other examples include cream cheese, sour cream, meat, olive oil and salad dressing.Invisible fats are those you cannot see like eggs or milk.Other examples include cookies, cake, potato chips, french fries, and cheese.
14 Fat in Our DietsFat deficiencies are uncommon, but cause loss of weight and energy.The typical American diet is rich in fats.High fat diets contribute to weight problems because fat is a concentrated source of energy and contains over twice as many calories (9cal/g) as carbohydrates (4cal/g) & protein (4cal/g).
15 Fat in Our DietsIf your diet provides more fat or calories than your body needs, your body will store the excess as fat tissue.No more than 30% of your diet should come from fat. And only 10% should come from saturated fat.
16 Fat and HealthSaturated fats and dietary cholesterol can increase your blood cholesterol level.Trans fats found in hydrogenated fats can also increase cholesterol.High fat diets have been linked to heart disease and cancer.Overweight and obese people are more likely to develop diabetes.
17 A Healthy Diet and Fat A healthy diet should include some fat. A diet moderate in fat should include plenty of fruits, vegetables, grains, and legumes. Lean meats should be selected.Choose low-fat dairy products and limit red meat.Reduce trans-fats by avoiding foods with “partially hydrogenated oils” written on the ingredient list such as cookies or chips.Pick plant based oils rather than animal fat.