Presentation on theme: "(Lipids) Fats. Why Do We Need Fat in Our Diet? Fat helps the body absorb vitamins A, D, E, and K Body fat serves as a reserve supply of energy in the."— Presentation transcript:
Why Do We Need Fat in Our Diet? Fat helps the body absorb vitamins A, D, E, and K Body fat serves as a reserve supply of energy in the absence of carbs Body fat cushions and protects the heart and other vital organs Helps protect bones from injury Insulation for warmth Fat is a component of cell membranes Helps you feel full longer after you eat
Fats Essential Fatty Acids – Your body cannot produce all the fatty acids that it needs, so some are considered essential. These must be obtained through foods. They are important for controlling inflammation, blood clotting, and brain development.
The Lipid (fat) Family Two types of Lipids 1. Triglycerides Saturated Unsaturated 2. Sterol Cholesterol
Triglycerides Makes up 95% of total body fat Triglycerides are the most common form of fat circulating in the blood. When we consume too many calories, the liver converts the excess into triglycerides, they are then stored in our bodies.
Structure of Triglycerides Fats are made from chemical structures called Fatty Acids. They are divided by their degree of saturation Saturated Fatty Acid- When a fatty acid contains all the hydrogen it can hold. Ex. Meat and whole dairy. Raise Level of LDL Unsaturated- When a hydrogen is missing from the fatty acid structure. Monounsaturated Fatty Acid- If only one hydrogen unit is missing. Lowers LDL levels. Ex. Olive oil Polyunsaturated- two or more hydrogen units missing. Lower LDL & HDL Levels Ex. Corn oil
Sterols Most common form of sterols is cholesterol. Cholesterol makes up the other 5% of fat in body. It is the fat that accumulates on the inner walls of the arteries. Cholesterol is almost always found in foods from animal sources. Most concentrated source can be found in an egg yolk and in liver.
Sterols Cholesterol does not float through the blood on its own. It is transported by two types of packages. LDL & HDL LDL (low-density lipoprotein)- takes cholesterol from the liver to wherever the body needs it. If there is too much it can build up on the artery walls and cause heart disease. “Bad” HDL (High-density lipoprotein)- This picks up excess cholesterol and takes it back to the liver for excretion. “happy”/”healthy”
Trans Fats Hydrogenated oils- turned vegetable oil into solids. Food producers used hydrogenated fats to give products longer shelf life and better flavor. Usually used in frying foods. Hydrogenation forms trans fatty acids = Trans Fats Trans Fats function like saturated fats in the body. They increase LDL cholesterol in blood levels and decrease HDL. Trans fats are common in margarine, salad dressings, crackers, snack foods, baked goods, fast foods. In January 2006, manufactures were required to put trans fat facts on all products.
Fat digestion Click photo for digestion video (1:28 minutes)
Recommendations Choose lean, protein-rich foods such as soy, fish, skinless chicken, very lean meat, and fat-free or 1% dairy products. Eat foods that are naturally low in fat such as whole grains, fruits, and vegetables. Get plenty of soluble fiber such as oats, bran, dry peas, beans, cereal, and rice. Limit fried foods, processed foods, and commercially prepared baked goods (donuts, cookies, crackers). Limit animal products such as egg yolks, cheeses, whole milk, cream, ice cream, and fatty meats (and large portions of meats). Our bodies need fat in moderation. Fat-free diets are not the answer
Recommendations Look at food labels, especially the level of saturated fat. Avoid or limit foods high in saturated fat. Look on food labels for words like "hydrogenated" or "partially hydrogenated“. These foods are loaded with bad fats and should be avoided. Liquid vegetable oil, soft margarine, and trans fatty acid-free margarine are preferable to butter, stick margarine, or shortening. Children under age 2 should NOT be on a fat-restricted diet because cholesterol and fat are thought to be important nutrients for brain development. Read the nutrition labels and be aware of the amount of different types of fat contained in food.