Declarative sentences convey information representative speech act basic word order (SVO)
Interrogatives Request for information Two Types: –Yes-No Questions (Polar Questions) / Entscheidungsfragen: Addressee has to make a decision (Yes or No) –Wh-Questions / Ergänzungsfragen: Addressee is asked particular, additional information
Interrogatives: Yes-No Questions English: Subject-Auxiliary Inversion (auxiliary fronted) –Have you understood this stuff? –Do they study English?(Do inserted) Intonation (Basic Word Order) –You have understood this stuff? –They study English?
Interrogatives: Yes-No Questions German: Subject-Finite Verb Inversion (front aux or mv) –Hast du das Zeug verstanden? aux fronted –Studieren sie Englisch? mv fronted Intonation (Basic Word Order) –Du hast das Zeug verstanden? –Sie studieren alle Englisch?
Interrogatives: Wh-questions English: interrogative pronoun (Int.Pr.) = subject, genitive attr. basic word order –What is in the box? (subj.) –Who is your teacher?(subj.) –Whose suitcase is that?(gen. attr.)
Interrogatives: Wh-questions English: interrogative pronoun subject, genitive attr. subj-aux inversion –Where have you been skiing? –What did you get for christmas? (did inserted)
Interrogatives: Wh-questions German: interrogative pronoun = subject, genitive attr. basic word order (SVO; Satzklammer) –Wer bezahlt die Getränke? (subj.) –Was ist kaputt?(subj.) –Wessen Socken haben ein Loch?(gen.attr.)
Interrogatives: Wh-questions German: interrogative pronoun subject, genitive attr. subject-finite verb inversion (front aux or mv) –Was (>DO) hast du nicht verstanden? aux fronted –Wo (>ADV) befinden sie sich? mv fronted –Nach wem suchst du? mv fronted Preposition has to precede interrogative pronoun in German; in English a dangling prep at the end of the question is possible: Who(m) are you looking for?
Imperatives English 1. Run! 2. Be quiet! 3. Take him for a gentleman! Imperatives do not have an explicit subject generally have a verb in the base form
German 1. Setz dich! 2. Reich mir bitte das Salz! 3. Reicht mir bitte das Salz! 4. Reichen Sie mir bitte das Salz! in German imperatives there is a difference between plural and singular that can be seen in the inflected verb form in the polite form we have an explicit/overt subject Imperatives
Adhortatives English 1. Lets get started! 2. Lets you do it! The us has lost ist function as a pronoun. German 1. Lass uns loslegen!
Exclamatives exclamatives express the speakers emotional stance 1.What a nice day weve spent! 2. How beautiful you look today! basically restricted to exclamative utterances introduced by what or how 1.Isnt she beautiful! 2. Girl, do you look sad! (take the form of polar questions)
German 1. Wie schön du heute aussiehst! 2. Wie groß du geworden bist! 3. Hast du dich vielleicht erschrocken! 4. Hat das aber wunderbar funktioniert! Exclamatives
Verb-first constructions 1.Is she reading this book again?Yes-no question AUX S MAINV O 2.Lets stop it!Adhortative AUX S MAINV O 3.Has the town changed!Exclamative AUX S MAINV 4.Had I known this earlier, I would have helped you.Conditional Clause AUX S MAINV O 5.Leave me alone!Imperative MAINV O Properties: non-assertive do not describe a factual information in the world
Particular clauses Copular clauses Verb-particle constructions Left- and right dislocation Cleft-sentences Resultative constructions
Copular clauses 1.This building is a school.predicative nominal 2.This building is old.predicative adjective 3.It is hot.nonreferential it 4.There is a school. locative/existential there (?) German: 1. – 4. 5.Das ist ein Auto. 6.Das sind meine Zeitschriften. uninflected das
Verb-particle constructions Intransitive vs. transitive verb-particle constructions e.g. Alistair put the book away. Bob looked down. Position of particle: Alistair put the book away. OR: Alistair put away the book. BUT only: The students think of the exam. Put it off! *Put off it! They think of it! Position of particles/prepositions in relative clauses: the school I went tothe book I put away the school to which I went*the book away which I put
Verb-particle constructions Order of particles: I wrote it down. I wrote Lucys new telephone number down. I wrote the telephone number from Lucys new London appartment, which she recently has bought quite cheaply, down. Length German: Separable vs. Inseparable prefixes Separable: Ich stelle das Geschirr hin. Inseparable: Martin über-wacht das Geschehen.
Left- and right dislocation constituent of the clause occurs outside the clause boundaries advanced (left dislocation) My heart itMy heart, clause boundary Nun istmein Herz clause boundary esnun istMein Herz, is broken now. gebrochen. emphasize, define topic
Left- and right dislocation constituent of the clause occurs outside the clause boundaries postponed (right dislocation) What do I needmy heartfor? itWhat do I needmy heart?for, clause boundary jetzt noch?Wofür brauche ichmein Herz jetzt noch,Wofür brauche ichesmein Herz? clause boundary give an afterthought
Cleft sentence complex sentence (main clause and subordinate clause) expresses a simple sentence very common in English, rather seldom in German (flexibility in word order) nun gebrochen. is broken now. Mein Herz put focus on constituent My heart thatmy heartIt is gebrochen ist. ist mein HerzEs ist, das nun
Resultative construction verb plus its arguments and additional phrase (AP or PP) expresses a result state of the event expressed by the verb, so it fallsYou break my heartinto pieces. You break my heartinto pieces. Du brichst mein Herzentzwei. Du brichst mein Herzentzwei., deshalb ist es
As-predicative object includes hidden copular clause heart-broken man.You see meas a You see meheart-broken man.. I am a Sie sehen mich als einengebrochenen Mann. Sie sehen michgebrochener Mann.. Ich bin ein