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First 2 years Cognitive Development

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Presentation on theme: "First 2 years Cognitive Development"— Presentation transcript:

1 First 2 years Cognitive Development
How does a baby & toddler begin thinking?


3 What are Piaget’s Stages of development?
Sensorimotor stage (Infancy) Preoperational stage Concrete operation stage Formal operations stage (Adult)

4 What is Piaget’s sensorimotor stage of cognitive development?
Primary reactions (Reflexes and habits) Stage 1 (Birth – 1 month) Reflexes Stage 2 (1-4 months) Adapting to new items (e.g. breast to pacifier) Secondary reactions (Responds to other people) Stage 3 (4-8 moths) Making interesting interactions last Stage 4 (8-12 months) Anticipates interaction (e.g. putting Mother’s hands together to play) Tertiary Reactions (Acts independently) Stage 5 (1 – 1½ years) “Little scientist” experimenting Stage 6 ( 1½ - 2 years) Considers consequences

5 What is sensorimotor Intelligence?
Learned through the senses Circular reaction Sensation – perception – cognition cycle around and around

6 Primary reaction Stage 1 ( Reflexes) (Birth – one month)
Responding to own body (e.g. stepping reflex) Stage 2 (Habits) (1-4 months) Adapting reflexes to new situations (Acquired adaptation) E.g. Sucking from mom’s nipple to bottle to pacifier A sign baby is thinking

7 Secondary reaction Responding to other people & objects
Stage 3 (Continuing interaction) 4-8 months Making interesting sights last E.g. clapping hands for “patty-cake” 8 Mos. Understanding object permanence Stage 4 ( Starting interaction) 8mos. – 1 year Infant has goals Initiates and anticipates Initiates E.g. Patty-cake Anticipates E.g. Running from an unwanted bath

8 Tertiary reaction Stage 5 (Acts independently - Experimenting)
1-1½ years Active experimenting “Little scientist” Stage 6 (Thought before action) 1½ - 2 years Thinks about consequences E.g. Toilet overflowed last time Mommy was mad at squeezing toothpaste Deferred imitation Copying behavior they saw earlier

9 Do you remember? What are the major differences between primary, secondary, and tertiary reactions? What is the concept of “object permanence”? At what level of reaction will children begin experimenting? What is this behavior called?

10 How do children process information?

11 What are “affordances”
Opportunities to interact with people and things afforded by the environment Visual Cliff Based on experience 6 month will go over cliff 10 Month will refuse

12 What do babies perceive?
Movement Dynamic Perception Infant focusing on the chasing things that move E.g. A mobile spinning overhead, or a moving ball People preference Preference for looking at faces Recognizing caregivers

13 What types of memories do children have?
Implicit Hidden Unconscious habits, emotions, procedures Crying Learning to move mobile Explicit Usually verbal Recalled on demand Words, data, concepts Reminders help

14 Do you remember? What is the visual cliff?
When will children refuse to cross it? What is an example of dynamic perception?

15 Language

16 What is the universal sequence of learning language?
Reflexes, cooing, babbling, spoken words All babies, regardless of native language follow this sequence Listening & Responding Babbling E.g. ma-ma-ma, da-da-da All babies, regardless of native language or deafness Holophrase One word = phrase E.g. More, cookie, Dada! Naming explosion Nouns Grammar

17 What are the theories of language?
1. Learning theory 2. Social Pragmatic 3. Innate 4. Hybrid

18 1. Learning theory Based on B.F. Skinner Reinforcement
E.g. Parents talking to children

19 2. Social Pragmatic Needed for communication Parents Outside world

20 3. Innate Noam Chomsky Children have an inborn ability to learn language E.g. Grammar Hypothesized a Language Acquisition Device (LAD) in the brain. Enables universal inborn ability to learn language Language in general is experience-expectant Words are expected by the developing brain Specific language is experience-dependent

21 4. Hybrid Combination of the other three
Multiple cues contribute to learning language

22 Do you remember? What is the universal sequence of learning language?
What is an example of a holophrase? What is the concept of the “Learning Acquisition Device” in the brain?


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