3 What are Piaget’s Stages of development? Sensorimotor stage (Infancy)Preoperational stageConcrete operation stageFormal operations stage (Adult)
4 What is Piaget’s sensorimotor stage of cognitive development? Primary reactions (Reflexes and habits)Stage 1 (Birth – 1 month)ReflexesStage 2 (1-4 months)Adapting to new items (e.g. breast to pacifier)Secondary reactions (Responds to other people)Stage 3 (4-8 moths)Making interesting interactions lastStage 4 (8-12 months)Anticipates interaction (e.g. putting Mother’s hands together to play)Tertiary Reactions (Acts independently)Stage 5 (1 – 1½ years)“Little scientist” experimentingStage 6 ( 1½ - 2 years)Considers consequences
5 What is sensorimotor Intelligence? Learned through the sensesCircular reactionSensation – perception – cognition cycle around and around
6 Primary reaction Stage 1 ( Reflexes) (Birth – one month) Responding to own body (e.g. stepping reflex)Stage 2 (Habits) (1-4 months)Adapting reflexes to new situations(Acquired adaptation)E.g. Sucking from mom’s nipple to bottle to pacifierA sign baby is thinking
7 Secondary reaction Responding to other people & objects Stage 3 (Continuing interaction)4-8 monthsMaking interesting sights lastE.g. clapping hands for “patty-cake”8 Mos. Understanding object permanenceStage 4 ( Starting interaction)8mos. – 1 yearInfant has goalsInitiates and anticipatesInitiatesE.g. Patty-cakeAnticipatesE.g. Running from an unwanted bath
8 Tertiary reaction Stage 5 (Acts independently - Experimenting) 1-1½ yearsActive experimenting“Little scientist”Stage 6 (Thought before action)1½ - 2 yearsThinks about consequencesE.g. Toilet overflowed last timeMommy was mad at squeezing toothpasteDeferred imitationCopying behavior they saw earlier
9 Do you remember?What are the major differences between primary, secondary, and tertiary reactions?What is the concept of “object permanence”?At what level of reaction will children begin experimenting?What is this behavior called?
11 What are “affordances” Opportunities to interact with people and things afforded by the environmentVisual CliffBased on experience6 month will go over cliff10 Month will refuse
12 What do babies perceive? MovementDynamic PerceptionInfant focusing on the chasing things that moveE.g. A mobile spinning overhead, or a moving ballPeople preferencePreference for looking at facesRecognizing caregivers
13 What types of memories do children have? ImplicitHiddenUnconscious habits, emotions, proceduresCryingLearning to move mobileExplicitUsually verbalRecalled on demandWords, data, conceptsReminders help
14 Do you remember? What is the visual cliff? When will children refuse to cross it?What is an example of dynamic perception?
16 What is the universal sequence of learning language? Reflexes, cooing, babbling, spoken wordsAll babies, regardless of native language follow this sequenceListening & RespondingBabblingE.g. ma-ma-ma, da-da-daAll babies, regardless of native language or deafnessHolophraseOne word = phraseE.g. More, cookie, Dada!Naming explosionNounsGrammar
17 What are the theories of language? 1. Learning theory2. Social Pragmatic3. Innate4. Hybrid
18 1. Learning theory Based on B.F. Skinner Reinforcement E.g. Parents talking to children
19 2. Social PragmaticNeeded for communicationParentsOutside world
20 3. InnateNoam ChomskyChildren have an inborn ability to learn languageE.g. GrammarHypothesized a Language Acquisition Device (LAD) in the brain.Enables universal inborn ability to learn languageLanguage in general is experience-expectantWords are expected by the developing brainSpecific language is experience-dependent
21 4. Hybrid Combination of the other three Multiple cues contribute to learning language
22 Do you remember? What is the universal sequence of learning language? What is an example of a holophrase?What is the concept of the “Learning Acquisition Device” in the brain?