Presentation on theme: "Cognitive Development in Infancy"— Presentation transcript:
1Cognitive Development in Infancy Chapter 5:Cognitive Development in Infancy
2In This Chapter Cognitive changes Learning, categorizing, and rememberingThe beginning of languageMeasuring intelligence in infancy
3Cognitive Changes Piaget’s Views A quick reviewAssimilationAccommodationSensorimotor intelligenceAssimilation Process of fusing incoming information to existing schemes to make sense of experiencesAccommodationChanging a scheme to incorporate new informationSensorimotor intelligenceRefinement of innate schemes by experiences of the senses and motor actions
4Cognitive Changes Piaget’s Sensorimotor Stage Basic reflexesPrimary circular reactionSecondary circular reactionCoordination of secondary schemas (means-end behavior)Tertiary circular reactionTransition to symbolic thoughtPrimary circular reaction: simple repetitive actions organized around the infant’s own bodySecondary circular reaction: baby repeatedly exhibits behavior to produce a desired outcome.Means-end behavior: purposeful behavior to achieve a goalTertiary circular reaction: experiment with different behaviors to ascertain the outcomes.
5Piaget’s Sensorimotor Stage by Age SENSORIMOTOR SUBSTAGEAGEBasic ReflexesBirth to 1 monthPrimary Circular Reactions1 to 4 monthsSecondary Circular Reactions4 to 8 monthsCoordination of Secondary Schemes8 to 12 monthsTertiary Circular Reactions12 to 18 monthsTransition to Symbolic Thought18 to 24 monthsBasic ReflexesThe first schemes are inborn reflexes.EXAMPLES: Rooting, sucking, grasping reflexes2. Primary Circular ReactionsInfants discover actions involving their own bodies by accident, then learn by trial and error to repeat themuntil they become habits (schemes).EXAMPLES: At first, thumb comes to mouth by accident. Through trial and error, infants learn to reproduce the event until a thumb-sucking scheme becomes established.3. Secondary Circular ReactionsInfants discover actions involving objects in the environment by accident, then learn by trial and error to repeat them until they become habits (schemes).EXAMPLES: Holding a rattle, an infant may accidentally shake the rattle and enjoy the noise. Through trial and error, the infant learns to reproduce the event until a shaking scheme becomes established.4. Coordination of Secondary SchemesInfants intentionally put two schemes together to solve a problem or reach a goal. Intentionality is a new feature—these new behaviors are no longer discovered by accident.EXAMPLES: An infant sees a toy behind a box, pushes the box aside, then reaches for the toy. The infant intentionally combined pushing and reachingschemes to reach the goal (the toy).5. Tertiary Circular ReactionsBabies are curious about objects in the world and explore them in a trial-and-error fashion, trying to produce novel reactions.EXAMPLES: A baby drops a ball from shoulder height and watches what happens. The baby then explores the “dropping scheme” by dropping the ball from hip height, then from head height, then from knee height, observing each new result.6. Transition to Symbolic ThoughtToddlers begin to form symbolic representations of events, showing the beginnings of mental thought. Representations still tend to be physical (rather than purely mental), as when toddlers use their own body movements to represent movements of objects in the world.EXAMPLES: An eighteen-month-old girl would like to open the lid of a box, and to think about this she opens and closes her hand repeatedly. Rather than work directly on the box, she first uses her hand motion as a way to “think” about how to open it. She is thinking about the box using a symbolic representation (her hand).
6Piaget: Object Permanence Cognitive ChangesPiaget: Object PermanenceObject permanence: Realization that objects still exist when hidden from sight2 months: surprise when an object disappears6–8 months: looking for missing object8–12 months: reaching for or searching for completely hidden toytwo months: rudimentary expectations shown by surprise when an object disappearssix to eight months: looking for missing object for a brief period of timeEight to twelve months reaching for or searching for toy that is completely hidden
7Piaget’s Sensorimotor Stage Piaget: Imitation Imitation: Performance of act whose stimulus is observation of act performed by another person2 months: imitate actions they could see themselves make8–12 months: imitate other people’s facial expressions1 year: imitation of any action that wasn’t in child’s repertoire begins18 months: deferred imitation (a child’s imitation of some action at a later time) begins
8Cognitive Changes Challenges to Piaget’s Views Underestimation of infant cognitive capacityInaccurate equation of infant’s lack of physical ability with lack of cognitive understandingUnderestimation of object permanence appearance beginning
9Cognitive Changes Modern Studies of Object Permanence Recent theoriesDeveloping object permanence a process of elaboration rather than discoveryBaillargeonBabies as young as 4 months show signs of object permanence but may be tied to experimental situationsAround 1 year can use sufficiently across situationsBiallargeon and others used possible/impossible events and habituation methods to study object permanence.
10Cognitive Changes Summary of Differences Piaget’s early researchBaby comes with repertoire of sensorimotor scheme by construction—world understanding via experiences.Recent researchNewborns have considerable awareness of objects as separate entities that follow certain rules.Biallargeon and others used possible/impossible events and habituation methods to study object permanence.
11Figure 5.1 Facial Gesture Imitation in Newborns Seminal research agrees that an infant will imitate gesture of tongue protrusion but disagree as to how much an infant will imitate.
12Cognitive Changes Spelke’s Alternative Approach Assumption: Babies have inborn assumptions about objects and their movement.Method: Violation of expectations methodResearchers move an object the opposite way from that which the infant comes to expect.Let’s look at the next slide for an example.
13Figure 5.2 Spelke’s Classic Study of Object Perception Ask: What do the data convey?Three conditions on topActual results belowBabies habituated and stopped looking at expected result but showed surprise when results were inconsistent.Figure 5.2
14Cognitive Changes Baillargeon’s Alternative Approach Assumption: Knowledge about objects is not built in, but strategies for learning are innate.Method: Study of object stability perceptionResearchers stack smiling-face blocks in stable and unstable positions.Let’s look at the next slide for an example.
15Figure 5.3 Baillergeon’s Study of Object Stability Perception Two- to three-month-olds think smiling blocks will not fall under either condition.Five-month-olds recognize stable condition.
16Stop and Think!After reviewing the information we have just covered, how would you explain an infant’s habit of throwing things out of her crib to a parent who viewed it as a misbehavior that needed to be corrected?
17Learning, Categorizing, and Remembering Conditioning and Modeling Learning: Permanent changes in behavior that result from experienceClassical ConditioningOperant ConditioningModelingClassical conditioning researchGunther and breastfeeding: babies who felt smothered by the left breast learned to refuse the left breast.Operant conditioning—reinforcements—sounds of mother’s voice or heartbeat, sweet liquids: the mother’s voice is an effective reinforcer for virtually all babies.Classical conditioningLearning of emotional responses as early as the first week of lifeStimulus-response connectionOperant conditioningBoth sucking responses and head-turning have been increased using reinforcement.Learning from models too
18Learning, Categorizing, and Remembering Schematic Learning Schematic learning: Organization of experiences into expectancies or “known” combinations (schemas)7 months: Infants actively use categories, but not levels, to process information.2 years: Hierarchical or superordinate categories appear.Schematic learning—often called schemas—is built up over many exposures to a particular experience; help baby to distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar.Categories By seven months, infants actively use categories to process information.Cannot process levels of categoriesBabies respond differently to animals versus furniture but not to dogs versus birds.Hierarchical or superordinate categories appear by age two.Superordinates: a higher-level category that includes lower-level categories; animal is a superordinate that contains dogs.
19What do data from sequential learning studies suggest? Infancy: respond to superordinate before basic level categories12 months: understand basic and superordinate categories2 years: partially understand smaller categories nested in larger categories5 years: fully understand categoriesFull understanding linked to language development and using words as category labels
20Learning, Categorizing, and Remembering Memory Carolyn Rovee-Collier’s researchBabies as young as 3 months old can remember specific objects and their own actions for as long as a week.Young infants are more cognitively sophisticated than was previously assumed.Newborns appear to be able to remember auditory stimuli to which they are exposed while sleeping.Rovee-Collier hangs an attractive mobile over a baby’s crib, attaches a ribbon to the baby’s leg, records leg kicks. Her research supports the idea that the young infant is more developmentally sophisticated than developmentalists and Piaget had supposed.Infant memory is tied strongly to the context in which learning takes place. Change the mobile or the bunting even slightly and the memory will not be recalled.
21Figure 5.5 Rovee-Collier’s Study of Infant Memory
22Learning, Categorizing, and Remembering What else have we learned about memory?Babies as young as three months old can remember specific objects and their own actions for as long as a week.Young infants are more cognitively sophisticated than previously assumed.“Lost” memories can be reactivated.With age, infant memories become less and less tied to specific cues or context.
23The Beginnings of Language Theoretical Perspectives Behaviorist viewNativist viewInteractionist viewBabies as young as three months old can remember specific objects and their own actions for as long as a week.Young infants more are cognitively sophisticated than previously assumed.“Lost” memories can be reactivated.With age, infant memories become less and less tied to specific cues or context.Let’s consider each!
24The Beginnings of Language The Behaviorist View: B. F. Skinner Parent-reinforced babbling and grammar useCorrect grammar reinforced, becomes more frequentNon-grammatical words not reinforcedIs this what you observe when parents interact with very young children?Begins with babbling, which parents reinforceRespond to grammatical use of words with reinforcementWithhold reinforcement for nongrammatical wordsCorrect grammar reinforced, becomes more frequentBUT apparently NOT what happens—parents respond to all vocalizations.Theory makes sense on surface and can explain some variations but does not completely tell the story of language acquisition.
25The Beginnings of Language The Nativist View Noam Chomsky Grammar rules acquired before exception masteryRule-governed errors made (overregulation)Comprehension and production guided by Language Acquisition Device (LAD)LAD = An innate language processor which contains the basic grammatical structure of all human languageRule-governed grammatical errors: almost all three-year olds overregularize the past tense of verbs.“Yesterday we goed to the store,” or, “I breaked my cookie.”LAD separates sounds into vowels and consonants. All human languages have the same form, according to Chomsky.
26The Beginnings of Language More about the LAD Language Acquisition DeviceBasic grammatical structure for all human languageTells babies there are 2 types of sounds (consonants and vowels)Enables infants to divide, analyze, and learn sounds of the specific language they are learning
27The Beginnings of Language Slobin Importance of “soundness”Infants are preprogrammed to attend to beginnings and endings of sounds and to stressed sounds.Programming is not attached to verbs or nouns, but to attention to sounds.
28The Beginnings of Language The Interactionist View Four key ideasLanguage follows rules as part of cognition.Language includes internal and external factors.Infants are born with biological preparedness to pay more attention to language than other information.The infant brain has generalized tools used across all cognitive domains—NOT language-specific neurological model.
29The Beginnings of Language Bowerman and Bloom Language does not initially introduce new meaning, but expresses meaning already formulated, independent of language.Children attempt to communicate and learn new words when these aid in the communication of thoughts and ideas.Lois Bloom & Melissa Bowerman: “When language starts to come in, it does not introduce new meanings to the child. Rather, it is used to express only those meanings the child has already formulated.”Lois Bloom: from the beginning, the child’s attempt is to communicate, and he learns new words when they help him to communicate his thoughts and ideas.
30The Beginnings of Language Influences on Language Development Infant-directed speechHigher pitchRepetitions with variationsInfant preferredSpeech in a higher pitchAdults repeat often, introduce minor variations, and use slightly more elongated sentences.Babies prefer infant-directed speech to adult speech.A baby more easily imitates a correct grammatical form “recast” from his own sentences by an adult.Children whose parents talk to them a lot develop richer vocabularies and more complex sentences.
31??Questions To PonderWhich language theory appears to be right to you? Why? What are 3 effective strategies parents may use to help stimulate language development in their children?
32The Beginnings of Language Early Milestones of Language Development Birth–1 monthCrying predominant sound1–2 monthsLaughing and cooing sounds (aaaaa)6–7 monthsBabbling; repetitive vowel-consonant combinations9–10 monthsHand gesture-vocalization combinationsInitially, babbling contains all kinds of sounds; by nine or ten months, babies typically begin to babble closer and closer to the language they hear.Babbling is also linked to gestures for demanding or asking for something. Parents encourage gestures at this age as well.
33Word Recognition Receptive Language Receptive language: Ability to understand words8 months: begin to store words in memory9–10 months: understands 20–30 words13 months: 100 wordsReceptive language: the ability to understand words
34The Beginnings of Language Expressive Language Expressive language: Ability to produce words12-13 months: Babies begin to say first words.Words learned slowly in context with specific situations and cuesExpressive language: the ability to produce wordsRepetition provides the mechanism for word production.
35The Beginnings of Language First Words HolophrasesNaming ExplosionNow let’s take a look at vocabulary growth during the toddler years.Young children learn and express more frequently used words first and then concentrate on others.HolophrasesCombining a single word with gestures to make a complete thoughtUsed between 12 and 18 monthsNaming ExplosionUsed between 16 and 24 months16 months old: 50 words in vocabulary24 months old: 320 wordsVocabulary grows in spurts.Naming explosion includes names for things or people. Action words tend to appear later.
36Figure 5.6 Vocabulary Growth in the Second Year Goldfield and Reznick’s longitudinal studyVocabulary growth of six childrenCommon language pattern: slow initial growth followed by growth spurt
37The Beginnings of Language First Sentences Short, simple sentences appear at 18–24 months.Threshold vocabulary reaches around 100–200 words.Sentences: Following rules created
38The Beginning of Language Individual Differences in Language Development: Rate Differences in rate of language developmentA wide range of normal variations exists in sentence structures.Most children catch up.Those who don’t catch up have poor receptive language.Poor receptive language may lead to poor cognitive development in general.
39The Beginning of Language Individual Differences in Language Development: Style Differences in styleExpressive styleEarly vocabulary linked to social relationships rather than objectsReferential styleEarly vocabulary made up of names of things or peopleExpressive style: These children often learn pronouns (you, me) early and use many more personal social words such as no, yes, want, or please; they use multi-word strings such as love you and do it or go away. Expressive language may sound advanced but often has a smaller vocabulary.According to Bates, referential style children are more cognitively oriented. They are drawn to objects, spend more time in solitary play, and interact with people more than objects. These children are often advanced in understanding adult language.
40Figure 5.7 Variations in the Rate of Language Acquisition
41The Beginning of Language Language Development across Cultures Cooing, babbling, holophrases, and telegraphic speech typically found in all languagesUse of specific word order in early sentences is not the same.Particular inflections are learned in highly varying and specific orders.Some languages: noun/verb commonOthers: verb/nounInflections: In Japanese, Yo is used at the end of a sentence when the speaker is experiencing some resistance from the listener; the word me is used when the speaker expects approval or agreement.In Turkish, there is no two-word sentence stage; essentially, all inflections are learned by age two.
42Measuring Intelligence in Infancy What Is Intelligence? Intelligence: Ability to take in information and use it to adapt to environment Although each infant develops at a different pace, both genetic and environmental factors influence infant intelligence. So how can infant intelligence be measured?Instead of testing school-like skills (skills an infant does not yet have), the items measure primarily sensory and motor skills, such as reaching for a dangling ring (an item for a typical baby at three months), putting cubes in a cup on request (nine months), or building a tower of three cubes (seventeen months).Some more clearly cognitive items are also included, such as uncovering a toy hidden by a cloth, an item used with eight-month-old infants to measure an aspect of object permanence.
43Measuring Intelligence in Infancy Bailey Scales of Infant DevelopmentFagan Test of Infant IntelligenceBailey Scales of Infant DevelopmentMeasure sensory and motor skillsHelp identify children with serious developmental delaysNot as useful predicting later intelligenceFagan Test of Infant IntelligenceStandardized test of habituation (novelty preference, visual recognition)Useful when Bailey test cannot be usedInstead of testing school-like skills (skills an infant does not yet have), the items measure primarily sensory and motor skills, such as reaching for a dangling ring (an item for a typical baby at three months), putting cubes in a cup on request (nine months), or building a tower of three cubes (seventeen months).Some more clearly cognitive items are also included, such as uncovering a toy hidden by a cloth, an item used with eight-month-old infants to measure an aspect of object permanence.
44Measures of habituation are related to later measures of intelligence. True or False?Measures of habituation are related to later measures of intelligence.Maybe