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Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones of the shoulders, arms, hands, hips, legs and feet.

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Presentation on theme: "Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones of the shoulders, arms, hands, hips, legs and feet."— Presentation transcript:

1 Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones of the shoulders, arms, hands, hips, legs and feet

2 Types of bones Long, short, flat and irregular

3 Long bones Femur

4 Short bones Wrist and ankles More than half of short bones are in hand and feet

5 Flat bones Ribs, skull

6 Irregular bones Vertebrae – shape that does not fit into any of the other three categories

7 Cartilage Strong, Flexible connective tissue Line surfaces of the joints and enable them to move smoothly, cushion adjoining vertebrae and support nose and ears Baby’s skeleton is mostly cartilage but through ossification the cartilage is replaced by bone

8 Cartilage

9 Joints Ball and socket Allows the widest range of movement; backward, forward, sideways, and in a circle Shoulder and Hip

10 Joints Pivot Joint – bony projection allows rotation First two vertebrae in neck

11 Joints Ellipsoidal Joint – Like the one in you wrist Overall part fits into a curved space Allows all types of movement except pivitol

12 Joints Hinge Joint – Allows bending and straightening as the fingers. The knee and elbow are hinge joints

13 Care of the skeletal system Nutrition and exercise affect eh health of skeletal system Milk (vitamin D) helps build bones Peas, beans, liver, cottage cheese, broccoli and whole grains Weight Bering exercises help bones stay strong

14 Problems of the Skeletal system Fractures Two categories simple (closed)-the broken bone does not protrude, or stick out, through the skin Compound- (open) – One or both bone ends project through the skin

15 Fractures Fractures also classified according to the shape or pattern of the break 3 classifications Hairline Fracture – Transverse - Comminuted Fracture -

16 Fractures Hairline – Fracture is incomplete and the ends of the bones do not separate

17 Fractures Transverse Fracture – The fracture is completely across the bone May result from a sharp blow or stress by prolonged running

18 Transverse Fracture

19 Fractures Comminuted Fracture – The bone shatters into more than two pieces, usually from severe force like auto accident

20 Osteoporosis Bone density decreases causing bones to become brittle and easily fractured Women especially vulnerable to this after menopause No longer producing estrogen to help maintain bone mass

21 Scoliosis Lateral side to side curvature of the spine

22 Injuries to the Joints Dislocation – bone slips from its normal position at a joint Usually accompanied by tearing of joint ligament Do not attempt to replace bone

23 Dislocation

24 Torn Cartilage Can result from sharp blow or sever twisting of a joint Arthroscopic surgery

25 Bunion Painful swelling of the bursa in the first jint of the big toe Caused by wearing tight shoes

26 Bursitis Bursa in a joint becomes inflamed Common in the shoulder and knee joints Usually the result of pressure, friction or slight injury to the membrane around the joint

27 Arthritis Inflammation of a joint with pain, swelling and stiffness and redness Most common type is Osteoarthritis – results from wear and tear on the joint and most commonly troubles older adults

28 Repetitive Motion Injuries Carpal Tunnel – Caused by prolonged repetitive motion

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