72 main parts of skeletal system 1. AxialCenter of skeletonRibs, sternum,skull, and spine2. AppendicularAll the limbs outsidethe axial skeleton
84 Types of Bones 1. Long Bones Humerus, Femur (arm and leg bones) 2. Short BonesFound in wrist and ankle (carpals and tarsals)3. Flat bonesRibs, Scapula4. Irregular BonesVertebrae
92 Layers of Bone 1. Periosteum – Outer layer Dense, thick, and hard 2. Endosteum – Inner layerLess dense bone that is sponge like.
10Types of Joints1. Joint – a location in the body where two or more bones meet to enable movement.2. Ball and Socket JointEnables wide range of motionExample – shoulder and hip3. Hinge JointLesser range of motion than ball and socketExample elbow and knee4. Pivot JointEnables rotation of head and forearm
143 Types of Connective Tissue 1. Cartilage – strong, flexible tissue that makes up soft parts of body.Tip of nose, earAll bones (from the time of birth) start as cartilage.As cartilage hardens, it turns to bone. This process is called ossification.
27Problems of Skeletal System 2. Osteoporosis – condition in which there is a progressive loss of bone tissueBones weaken and become brittleCaused by a lack of vitamin D and calciumMilk and other dairy products are excellent sources.Weight training and physical activity help increase bone mass
35Problems of the Joints3. Carpal tunnel syndrome – ligaments and tendons in the wrist swell, causing numbness, pain, and weakness in the hand.Caused by normal wear and tear – typing, writing, etc.
36Keeping Skeletal System Healthy Consume Calcium and Vitamin D!Found in dairy products such as milk and yogurtParticipate in regular physical activityLight weight lifting can enhance bone mass.Exercise promotes better blood circulation which helps to nourish bones
37Keeping Skeletal System Healthy Wear protective gearHelmets, pads with contact sports, etc.Keep teeth clean!!Infections from cavities can potentially spread to jaw bone and other facial bones.