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Language. Human capacity for acquiring and using complex systems of communication. Cultural trait that is learned from one generation to the next. Fundamental.

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Presentation on theme: "Language. Human capacity for acquiring and using complex systems of communication. Cultural trait that is learned from one generation to the next. Fundamental."— Presentation transcript:

1 Language

2 Human capacity for acquiring and using complex systems of communication. Cultural trait that is learned from one generation to the next. Fundamental component in cultural identity. The scientific study of language in any of its senses is called linguistics.

3 One of the oldest, most geographically diverse, and most complex cultural traits on earth.

4 It is speculated that nearly 2.5 million years ago language first developed to organize human activity.

5 Occurs when languages or dialects grow from one original source because of the migration of original speakers to new lands or contact with new languages.

6 Prehistory- at least 10,000 languages spoken throughout the world. Today- about 5,000 to 7,000 languages remain. WHY?????

7 Language Family Branches Groups Language Dialects

8 Africa Over 2100 languages spoken (some counts over 3000) Asia Over 2100 languages spoken



11 World’s great concentration of linguistic diversity. Rugged terrain and limited interaction between tribal groups 900 languages Different from world trend.

12 A collection of many languages, all of which came from the same original tongue long ago, that have since evolved different characteristics. Percent of World’s Speakers Indo-European- 44.78% Sino-Tibetan- 22.28% Niger-Congo- 6.26% Afro-Asiatic- 5.93% Austronesian- 5.45% Dravidian- 3.87%

13 Almost 50% of the world’s people speak languages belonging to this family. Dominant in Europe, Russia, North and South America, Australia, and parts of Southwestern Asia and India. Includes the Germanic and Romance Languages Also the Slavic, Indic, Celtic, and Iranic.



16 Over 20 % of the world’s people speak languages from this family. Most of Southeast Asia and China Comprised of Chinese (language with the most speakers), Burmese, Tibetan, Japanese, and Korean.


18 30% of the world’s populations speak languages from these families.

19 A natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other languages. One that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common with any other language. They are in effect language families consisting of a single language. Commonly cited examples include Basque, Ainu, and Burushaski.

20 A set of languages with a relatively recent common origin and many similar characteristics. Romance Languages (French, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, Spanish)

21 Geographically distinct versions of a single language that vary somewhat from the parent form.

22 Geographical boundary lines where different linguistic features meet.

23 Language that may develop when two groups of people with different languages meet. The pidgin has some characteristics of each language. Creole A pidgin language that evolves to the point at which it becomes the primary language of the people who speak it.

24 Working Language, Bridge Language, Vehicular Language An extremely simple language that combines aspects of two or more other, more-complex languages used for quick and efficient communication. Can be a developed language.

25 English= Current lingua franca of international business, science, technology, and aviation. There are many other lingua francas centralized on particular regions, such as Arabic, Chinese, Russian, Spanish, and Swahili.

26 Language in which all government business occurs in a country. What’s the official language of the United States of America?

27 Acceptable form of a given language as declared by political or societal leaders.

28 Mandarin Chinese (885,000,000 speakers) Spanish (332,000,000 speakers) English (322,000,000 speakers) Bengali (189,000,000 speakers) Hindi (182,000,000 speakers) Portuguese (170,000,000 speakers) Russian (170,000,000 speakers) Japanese (125,000,000 speakers) German (standard) (98,000,000 speakers) Wu Chinese (77,175,000 speakers)

29 A multilingual state

30 Occurs when a language is no longer in use by any living people. Thousands of languages have become extinct since language first developed, but the process of language extinction has accelerated greatly during the past 300 years.

31 The ability to read and write.



34 11 Georgia˜100.0 22 Cuba99.9 32 Estonia99.8 42 Latvia99.8 55 Barbados 99.7 65 Slovenia99.7 75 Belarus99.7 85 Lithuania99.7 95 Ukraine99.7 105 Armenia99.7 1111 Kazakhstan 99.6 1211 Tajikistan99.6 1313 Azerbaijan 99.5 1413 Turkmenistan 99.5 1513 Russia 99.5 1616 Hungary99.4 1717 Kyrgyzstan 99.3 1817 Poland 99.3 1919 Tonga 99.2 2020 Albania99.1 2120 Antigua and Barbuda 99.0 2220 Australia99.0 2320 Austria99.0 2420 Belgium99.0 2520 Canada99.0 2620 Czech Republic 99.0 2720 North Korea 99.0 2820 Denmark99.0 2920 Finland99.0 3020 France99.0 3120 Germany 99.0 3220 Guyana99.0 3320 Iceland99.0 3420 Ireland99.0 3520 Japan99.0 3620 South Korea 99.0 37 20 Luxembourg 99.0 3820 Netherlands 99.0 3920 New Zealand 99.0 4020 Norway99.0 4120 Slovakia99.0 4220 Sweden99.0 4320 Switzerland 99.0 4420 United Kingdom 99.0

35 Place names given to certain features on the land such as settlements, terrain features, and streams. The various ways different cultures have named the land throughout history can provide insights into historical cultural migration patterns and diffusion processes across the globe. Gives insight on: Ownership Origins Aspirations

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