Presentation on theme: "8 Human Resources, Culture, and Diversity 8-1 Human Resources Basics"— Presentation transcript:
1 8 Human Resources, Culture, and Diversity 8-1 Human Resources Basics C H A P T E R8Human Resources, Culture, and Diversity8-1 Human Resources Basics8-2 Managing Human Resources8-3 Organizational Culture and Workforce Diversity
2 8-1 Human Resources Basics Goal 1 Describe the nature of today’s workforce.Goal 2 Identify important goals and activities of human resources.
4 THE U.S. WORKFORCEAll people 16 years and older who are employed or looking for a jobMore than 150 million people have full- or part-time jobsSource:The Occupational Outlook Handbook
5 THE CHANGING WORKFORCE Education and trainingHigh school education or more as a minimumSpecial training (College, MBA, Technical degree…)Basic skills and a willingness to work hard no longer good enough to get a good job…CompensationHigh-paying jobs – require more skills and educationLow-paying jobs – harder to live comfortablyType of WorkWorking with machines and technologyWorking mainly with people and information
6 TYPES OF JOBS Classified by industry Classified by occupation Service-providing industriesservices that satisfy the needs of other businesses and consumers.Goods-producing industriesproduce or manufacture productsClassified by occupationWhite-collar jobs (example Accountant)is one whose work is more mental than physicalBlue-collar jobsinvolves a great deal of physical work
7 SERVICE-PROVIDING INDUSTRIES Trade, transportation, and utilitiesInformationFinancial activitiesProfessional and business servicesReal EstateEducational and health servicesLeisure and hospitalityOther services
8 GOODS-PRODUCING INDUSTRIES Natural resources and miningConstructionManufacturingTeamwork activity (handout)
9 OCCUPATIONAL CATEGORIES Professional (Services)ServiceConstruction and extractionManagement, business, and financialInstallation, maintenance, and repairOffice and administrative supportSalesTransportation and material movingFarming, fishing, and forestryProduction
10 EMPLOYMENT PROJECTIONS FOR OCCUPATIONAL CATEGORIES The Occupational Outlook Handbook
11 Where the jobs areThe BLS estimates that the economy will add more than 15 million new jobs over the next 10 years. Almost all of that job growth will be in service- providing industries
12 Team Work ActivityEach year, Fortune magazine identifies the “Best Companies to Work For” based on high rankings from each company’s employees.As a team, make a list of things a company can do that you believe would help it make it to the “Best Companies... ” list.
14 CHANGING JOB REQUIREMENTS Consumer preferencesJobs are affected by consumer demand for a product or serviceBusiness cyclesStages of the business cycle affect job opportunitiesNew technologiesimproves efficiency so that businesses may stay competitiveBusiness competitionCompanies must be competitive to stay in business.
15 Business competition Downsizing Outsourcing is a planned reduction in the number of employees neededOutsourcingremoves work from one company and sends it to another company that can complete it at a lower cost.
16 Checkpoint What are several strong influences on changes in the workforce?Strong influences for change in the workforce include consumer preferences, economic conditions (business cycles), new technology, and business competition.
17 Life Span PlanWhy might it not make sense to set a life-span goal of becoming a US Mail Carrier?Explain why it is necessary to understand changes that are taking place in the workplace when you set your life-span goals.
18 HUMAN RESOURCES OVERVIEW Human resources are the people who work for a business it is different from other types of resources used by a companyManagement and employeesFull-time and part-time workersTemporary workers and long-time employees
19 HUMAN RESOURCES OVERVIEW Human resources departmentLarger companies have a department to handle this functionHuman resources management in small businessesThe owner of a small business will be responsible for managing human resources
20 HUMAN RESOURCES GOALS Identify the personnel needs of the company. Maintain an adequate supply of people to fill those needs.Match abilities and interests with specific jobs.Provide training and development.Develop plans to compensate personnel.Protect the health and well-being of employees.Maintain a productive and satisfying work environment.
21 HUMAN RESOURCES FUNCTIONS Planning and staffingPerformance managementCompensation and benefitsEmployee Relations
22 PLANNING AND STAFFING Activities Job analysisRecruitment and selectionJob placement
24 COMPENSATION AND BENEFITS Activities Wage and salary planningBenefits planningPayroll, benefits, and personnel records management
25 EMPLOYEE RELATIONS Activities Health and safety planningLabor relationsEmployment law and policy enforcementOrganizational development
26 Checkpoint What are the major goals of human resources? Identify the personnel needsMaintain an adequate supply of peopleMatch abilities and interests with specific jobs.Provide training and developmentDevelop plans to compensate personnelProtect the health and well-being of employees.Maintain a satisfying work environment.
27 8-2 Managing Human Resources Goal 1 Identify important planning and staffing activities.Goal 2 Describe compensation and benefits plans.Goal 3 Recognize the goals of performance management.
28 Planning and Staffing Activities Job analysisRecruitment and Selection (Hiring Process)Job placement
29 KEY TERMS Job analysis Compensation (salary/wages and benefits) study of a job to identify in detail the job duties and skill requirements.Compensation (salary/wages and benefits)amount of money paid to an employee for work performed.A time wage pays the employee a specific amount of money for each hour worked.A straight salary pays a specific amount of money for each week or month worked.
30 KEY TERMS Salary and wages Benefits Payment of money to an employee for workBenefitsCompensation other than money
31 KEY TERMS Incentive systems connect the amount of compensation to the quality or quantity of an employee’s performance.
32 KEY TERMSPromotion - advancement of an employee to a position with greater responsibility.Transfer - assignment of an employee to another job in the company with a similar level of responsibility
33 KEY TERMSTermination – ends the employment relationship between a company and an employeedischarge that ends employment due to inappropriate work behavior(Your Fired!)layoff, which is a temporary or permanent reduction in the number of employees due to changing business conditions
34 HUMAN RESOURCES PLANNING AND JOB ANALYSIS Classifying employeespermanent employee is one to whom the company makes a long-term commitment. It is expected that the employee will work for the business as long as the business is profitable and the employee’s performance is satisfactory.temporary employee is one hired for a specific time or to complete a specific assignment.
35 HUMAN RESOURCES PLANNING AND JOB ANALYSIS Whether permanent or temporary, employees can be hired full-time or part-time.A full-time employee regularly works a schedule of 30 hours or more a week.A part-time employee has a shorter work schedule with either fewer hours each day or fewer days each week.
36 HUMAN RESOURCES RECRUITING AND HIRING The application processThe application gathers personal information, information on education, and work experience history. It may also ask for specific skills related to the job and contact information for people who can serve as references.
37 HUMAN RESOURCES RECRUITING AND HIRING New Employee Orientation – The final step in the hiring processnew employee gets a good start in the company. The new employee will meet with human resources specialists to complete all of the paperwork needed to receive pay and benefits.the company will have a complete employee record. There will usually be at least several days of training. The employee may be paired with an experienced co-worker, or mentor.
38 RECRUITING PROSPECTIVE EMPLOYEES Company employment officeCompany websitesEmployment agencies, public and privateExecutive recruitersIndustry publicationsJob search and career websitesJob and career fairsNewspaper advertising, online and printPlacement offices, school and collegeRadio and television advertisingReferrals by employeesSocial networking
39 Checkpoint Why do human resources personnel need to study jobs before beginning the hiring process?Human resources personnel need to study jobs before beginning the hiring process to determine the specific skills that are needed so that they can hire a person with the ability to successfully perform the job.
40 COMPENSATION AND BENEFITS Compensation methods - Salary and Wages are direct payment of money to an employee for work completed.A time wage pays the employee a specific amount of money for each hour worked.A straight salary pays a specific amount of money for each week or month worked.Employee benefits – Compensation other than direct payment is known as benefits. (insurance, vacations, retirement plans, and health and fitness programs.)
41 COMPENSATION AND BENEFITS List three types of incentive systems for employee compensation.Commissionemployee is paid a percentage of sales for which he or she is responsiblePiece rateEmployee receives a specific amount for each unit of work produced.Base-plus-incentive systemscombines a wage or salary with an additional amount based on the employee’s performance.Profit Sharing – Wage and percent of company profit
42 BenefitsBusinesses are required by law to offer the following benefitsSocial SecurityMedicareOvertime compensationMay offerHealth insuranceRetirement account
43 PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Employee evaluationThe evaluation processfocus on the specific job duties of each employee. They also review the important work qualities expected of all employees.The evaluation conferencereview and discuss the results of the evaluationplan for any needed performance improvement. –identify the support the employee can expect from the manager and the company in order to improve performance.
44 8-3 Organizational Culture and Workforce Diversity Goal 1 Recognize factors that contribute to an effective organizational culture.Goal 2 Describe the benefits of diversity to an organization, individuals, and society.
45 KEY TERMS organizational culture work environment labor union the environment in which people work, made up of the psychological atmosphere, behaviors, beliefs, and relationshipswork environmentthe physical conditions and the psychological atmosphere in which employees work.labor unionan organized group of employees who negotiate with employers about issues, such as wages and working conditions.
46 Key Terms diversity glass ceiling is the comprehensive inclusion of people with differences in personal characteristics and attributes.glass ceilingan artificial limit placed on minority groups moving into positions of authority and decision-making.
47 DEVELOPING AN EFFECTIVE CULTURE Work-life relationshipsA positive organizational culture is one that respects the pressures on employees from outside of the job.Personal time is a few hours each month that can be scheduled for non-job activitiesFamily leave policies allow employees to take a leave from work for the birth or adoption of a child, to care for a sick family memberFlextime allows employees some choice in how their work days and work hours are arranged.Job sharing offers one job to two people.Flexplace means that some employees can complete part or all of their work away from the business site
48 DEVELOPING AN EFFECTIVE CULTURE Employer-employee relationsManagers who involve employees in decision-making find that better decisions are made. Employees are more likely to support those decisions.
49 DEVELOPING AN EFFECTIVE CULTURE Labor unionsThe percentage of U.S. workers who belong to a union has been steadily declining and is now about 12 percent.Unions and management resolve issues through collective bargaining, which is formal negotiation between members of both groups
50 Checkpoint What are some ways that companies help employees meet personal demands outside the job?Companies can maintain a positive organizational culture that respects the demands on employees from outside of the job through personal time, family leave, flextime, job sharing, and flexplace policies.
51 WORKFORCE DIVERSITYDiversity in the United States and throughout the worldBenefits of diversityOrganizational benefitsIndividual benefitsSocietal benefitsThe greatest increase in the American labor force in the future will be women, ethnic and racial minorities and immigrants.
52 FEDERAL LAWS REGULATING DISCRIMINATION Equal Pay Act of 1963Civil Rights Act of 1964federal law prohibits job discrimination based on race, color, religion, gender, and national originAge Discrimination and Employment Act of 1967The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
54 DEVELOPING A DIVERSE ORGANIZATION Develop a written commitment to diversity.Have the full support of top executives.Review evidence of diversity in the company.Update policies and procedures.Provide continuing diversity education.Recognize and celebrate diversity.
55 CHAPTER 84/20/2017Diversity BenefitsIdentify several organizational, individual, and societal benefits of diversity.Organizations benefit from having a larger employment pool from which to select qualified applicants, the ability to project a positive image, and enhanced capability to serve diverse markets.Individuals benefit by having the opportunity to develop to their full potential and to feel respected and supported despite their differences.Society benefits by a reduction in the social unrest and upheaval caused by prejudice and discrimination. The entire society benefits as diversity opens more job opportunities for everyone.POB
56 SHORT ANSWERList and define 4 benefits a company might offer to foster a positive organizational culture regarding work/life relationships