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Managing a Diverse Workforce

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2 Managing a Diverse Workforce
Chapter 19 Managing a Diverse Workforce The Changing Face of the Workforce Gender and Race in the Workplace Government’s Role in Securing Equal Employment Opportunity What Business Can Do: Diversity Policies and Practices Balancing Work and Life

3 The changing face of the workforce
Diversity Refers to variation in the important human characteristics that distinguish people from one another. Workforce diversity trends: More women are working than ever before. Immigration has profoundly reshaped the workplace. Ethnic and racial diversity is increasing. The workforce will continue to get older.

4 Proportion of women in the labor force
Figure 19.1 Proportion of women in the labor force Percent Year

5 The gender and race pay gap
Figure 19.2 The gender and race pay gap

6 Where women and minorities manage
Figure 19.3 Where women and minorities manage Percentage of Total, 2001 Female Black Hispanic All occupations % % % Managerial and professional Executive, administrative, and managerial Public officials and administrators Financial managers Personnel and labor relations managers Purchasing managers Marketing, advertising, & public relations mgrs Educational administrators Health care managers Property and real estate managers Management—related occupations

7 Breaking the glass ceiling
Although women and minorities are as competent as white men in managing people and organizations, they rarely attain the highest positions in corporations. In 2002, only 16% of executives were women. Only 12% of board members of Fortune 500 firms were women in 2001. Persons of color (men and women) now make up 19% of corporate directors.

8 Equal employment opportunity
Discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, national origin, physical or mental disability, or age is prohibited in all employment practices. Government contractors must have written affirmative action plans detailing how they are working positively to overcome past and present effects of discrimination in their workforce. Women and men must receive equal pay for performing equal work, and employers may not discriminate on the basis of pregnancy.

9 Major federal laws and executive orders prohibiting job discrimination
Figure 19.4a Major federal laws and executive orders prohibiting job discrimination Equal Pay Act (1963)—Mandates equal pay for substantially equal work by men and women. Civil Rights Act (1964; amended 1972, 1991)—Prohibits discrimination in employment based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. Executive Order (1965)—Mandates affirmative action for all federal contractors and subcontractors. Age Discrimination in Employment Act (1967)—Protects individuals who are 40 years of age or older.

10 Major federal laws and executive orders prohibiting job discrimination
Figure 19.4b Major federal laws and executive orders prohibiting job discrimination Equal Employment Opportunity Act (1972)—Increases power of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to combat discrimination. Pregnancy Discrimination Act (1978)—Forbids employers to discharge, fail to hire, or otherwise discriminate against pregnant women. Americans with Disabilities Act (1990)—Prohibits discrimination against individuals with disabilities Family and Medical Leave Act (1993)—Requires companies with 50 or more employees to provide up to 12 weeks unpaid leave for illness, care of a sick family member, or the birth or adoption of a child.

11 Affirmative action Since the mid-1960s, major government contractors have been required by presidential executive order to adopt written affirmative action plans specifying goals, actions, and timetables for promoting greater on-the-job equality. Their purpose is to reduce job discrimination by encouraging companies to take positive steps to overcome past employment practices and traditions that may have been discriminatory. Critics argue that affirmative action is inconsistent with the principles of fairness and equality. In 1995, the Supreme Court ruled that affirmative action laws were legal but only if they were temporary and flexible.

12 Benefits of managing diversity
Companies that promote equal employment opportunity generally do better at attracting and retaining workers from all backgrounds. Businesses with employees from varied backgrounds can often more effectively serve customers who are themselves diverse. The global marketplace demands a workforce with language skills, cultural sensitivity, and awareness of national and other differences across markets. Companies with effective diversity programs can avoid costly lawsuits and damage to their corporate reputations from charges of discrimination or cultural insensitivity.

13 Diversity practices Actions taken by companies to manage diversity effectively: They articulate a clear diversity mission, set objectives, and hold managers accountable. They spread a wide net in recruitment, to find the most diverse possible pool of qualified candidates. They identify promising women and persons of color, and provide them with mentors and other kinds of support. They set up diversity councils to monitor the company’s goals and progress toward them.

14 Family-friendly programs at General Mills
Exhibit 19.B Family-friendly programs at General Mills An on-site infant care center. Flexible work arrangements. On-site health care services, including mammograms for busy working mothers. Emergency child care for parents whose regular arrangements fall through. Exercise classes offered at the company’s health and fitness center.

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