4 Sustainability is the central theme of this book Natural capital:1) Natural resourcesEx: ______________2) Natural servicesNatural capital is supported by Solar capitalWhat causes degradation of natural capital?_____________________
5 NATURAL CAPITAL Natural Capital = Natural Resources + Natural Services SolarcapitalAirAir purificationRenewableenergy(sun, wind,water flows)Climate controlUV protection(ozone layer)Life(biodiversity)WaterPopulationcontrolWater purificationWaste treatmentPestcontrolNonrenewablemineralsiron, sand)LandSoilFood productionSoil renewalNatural gasNutrientrecyclingOilNonrenewableenergy(fossil fuels)Coal seamNatural resourcesNatural servicesFig. 1-3, p. 8Fig. 1-3, p. 8
6 Human activities can degrade natural capital By using renewable resources faster than can be replenished (ie fish, trees)(TOTC lab)And by using nonrenewable resources up
7 Solutions Solutions to problems must be scientific + political Often trade-offs are required because solutions may require economic lossesShort term vs. long term
8 Economic GapThere is a wide economic gap between rich and poor countriesEconomic growth is measured by
9 Changes in growthChanges in economic growth: measured by per capita GDP (why does PER CAPITA matter?) _______________What is per capita GDP PPP? _______________________________
10 Comparison of Developed and Developing Countries, 2008
12 1-3 How Are Our Ecological Footprints Affecting the Earth? Concept 1-3 As our ecological footprints grow, we are depleting and degrading more of the earth’s natural capital.
13 Some Sources Are Renewable Renewable resourceE.g., forests, grasslands, fresh air, fertile soilcan be replenished fairly quickly (hours up to hundred years)Sustainable yieldhighest which renewable resources can be used indefinitely w/out reducing available supplyEnvironmental degradationwhen available supply begins to shrink13
15 Some Resources Are Not Renewable Nonrenewable resourcesexist in a fixed quantity; can be renewed in million to billion yrs (maybe)Energy resourcesMetallic mineral resourcesNonmetallic mineral resources –salt, sandReuse-Recycle-
18 If everyone used resources the way we do in the US, the planet could only support 1.3 billion humans. (Currently the population is above 7 billion and rising. Uh oh. )
19 Cultural Changes Have Increased Our Ecological Footprints Until 12,000 years ago: hunters and gatherersThree major cultural eventsAgricultural revolutionIndustrial-medical revolutionInformation-globalization revolutionChina - By 2020, will have leading economy in terms of GDP PPP. Pop will be 1.5 bil by 2033.
20 1-4 What Is Pollution and What Can We Do about It? Concept 1-4 Preventing pollution is more effective and less costly than cleaning up pollution.
21 Pollution Comes from a Number of Sources Sources of pollutionPointE.g., smokestackNonpointE.g., pesticides blown into the airMain type of pollutantsBiodegradableNondegradable
22 Biodegradable?Biodegradable pollutants - can break down naturally over time.Nondegradable are harmful for long periods of time.Lead, mercury, arsenic, plastics - nondegradable.Fertilizers, sewage, newspaper - biodegradable.
23 We Can Clean Up Pollution or Prevent It Pollution cleanup (output pollution control)Pollution prevention (input pollution control)
24 Problems with cleanup only (rather than output control)
25 Experts Have Identified Five Basic Causes of Environmental Problems Population growthWasteful and unsustainable resource usePovertyFailure to include the harmful environmental costs of goods and services in their market pricesInsufficient knowledge of how nature works
27 Affluence Has Harmful and Beneficial Environmental Effects Harmful environmental impact due toHigh levels of consumptionUnnecessary waste of resourcesAffluence can provide funding for:Developing technologies to reduce pollution, environmental degradation, resource waste
28 In the US, air and water quality have improved since 1970, and some endangered species are coming back from the brink of extinction.
29 Prices Do Not Include the Value of Natural Capital Companies do not pay the environmental cost of resource useGoods and services do not include the harmful environmental costsCompanies receive tax breaks and subsidiesEconomy may be stimulated but there may be a degradation of natural capital
30 Different Views about Environmental Problems and Their Solutions Planetary management:Stewardship:Environmental wisdom:
31 1-6 What Are Four Scientific Principles of Sustainability? Concept 1- 6 Nature has sustained itself for billions of years by using solar energy, biodiversity, population control, and nutrient cycling—lessons from nature that we can apply to our lifestyles and economies.It seems we have years to make crucial changes.
32 Studying Nature Reveals 4 Scientific Principles of Sustainability