Sustainability has certain key components Life depends on ________________, ________________and ______________. Many human activities can degrade natural capital. Solutions are being found and implemented. Sustainability begins at personal and local levels.
Fig. 1-3, p. 9 Natural Capital Solar energy Air Air purification Climate control UV protection (ozone layer) Life (biodiversity) Water Population control Pest control Waste treatment Nonrenewable minerals (iron, sand) Soil Land Soil renewal Food production Natural gas Nutrient recycling Nonrenewable energy (fossil fuels) Coal seam Natural resources Natural services Oil Natural Capital = Natural Resources + Natural Services Renewable energy (sun, wind, water flows) Water purification
Fig. 1-4, p. 10 Organic matter in animals Dead organic matter Organic matter in plants Decomposition Inorganic matter in soil
Some resources are renewable and some are not Humans depend on resources to meet our needs. A perpetual resource is … A renewable resource is … Sustainable yield is …
Some resources are renewable and some are not Some resources are not renewable. –Nonrenewable resources exist in fixed quantities. – Sustainable solutions: 3Rs
Rich and poor countries have different environmental impacts Developed countries include the high income ones –e.g. Developing countries include the low income ones –e.g.
HOW ARE OUR ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINTS AFFECTING THE EARTH?
We are living unsustainably Environmental, or natural capital, degradation is occurring. We have solutions to these problems that can be implemented.
Degradation of normally renewable natural resources
Fig. 1-5, p. 11 Natural Capital Degradation Degradation of Normally Renewable Natural Resources Climate change Shrinking forests Air pollution Decreased wildlife habitats Species extinction Soil erosion Water pollution Declining ocean fisheries Aquifer depletion
Pollution comes from a number of sources Point sources are … Nonpoint sources are … We can ____________ or ____________. Which is “better”? Why?
The tragedy of the commons: overexploiting shared renewable resources In 1968, the biologist Garrett Hardin called the degradation of openly shared resources the tragedy of the commons. Reducing degradation. –Reduce use by government regulations. –Shift to private ownership.
Ecological footprints: our environmental impacts Ecological footprint is … Per capita ecological footprint is …
Ecological footprints: our environmental impacts Ecological deficit means the ecological footprint is ________ than the biological capacity to replenish resources and absorb wastes and pollution. Humanity is living ________________. Footprints can also be expressed as …
Fig. 1-8, p. 14 Total Ecological Footprint (million hectares) and Share of Global Biological Capacity (%) Per Capita Ecological Footprint (hectares per person) United States 2,810 (25%) United States 9.7 European Union2,160 (19%) European Union4.7 China 2,050 (18%) China 1.6 India 780 (7%)India 0.8 Japan 540 (5%) Japan 4.8 2.5 Unsustainable living 2.0 1.5 Projected footprint 1.0 Number of Earths 0.5 Ecological footprint Sustainable living 1961197019801990200020102020203020402050 Year 0
Fig. 1-10, p. 16 Causes of Environmental Problems Population growth Unsustainable resource use Poverty Excluding environmental costs from market prices
The human population is growing exponentially at a rapid rate Human population is increasing at a fixed percentage so that we are experiencing doubling of larger and larger populations. Human population in 2009 was about ____ billion. Based on the current increase rate there will be ____ billion people by 2050. We can slow population growth.
? Industrial revolution Black Death—the Plague 2–5 million years 4000 B. C.A. D. 800060002000 2100 Hunting and gathering Agricultural revolutionIndustrial revolution Time Billions of people 0 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Fig. 1-11, p. 16
Affluence has harmful and beneficial environmental effects Wealth results in high levels of … Average American consumes _____ times as much as the average consumer in India. “Shop-until-you-drop” affluent consumers are afflicted with a disorder called ___________. Affluence has provided what positives?
Poverty has harmful environmental and health effects How do you know if you are “poor”? One in every five people live in extreme poverty (<$ ), and more are susceptible.
Poverty has harmful environmental and health effects Poverty causes harmful environmental and health effects. –
Fig. 1-13, p. 18 Lack of access to Number of people (% of world's population) Adequate sanitation facilities 2.6 billion (37%) Enough fuel for heating and cooking 2 billion (29%) Electricity 2 billion (29%) Clean drinking water 1.1 billion (16%) Adequate health care 1 billion (14%) Adequate housing Enough food for good health 900 million (13%) 1 billion (14%)
Prices of goods and services due not include harmful environmental and health costs ________________ may increase environmental degradation. There are ways to include harmful costs of goods and services. –
People have different views about environmental problems and their solutions Each individual has their own environmental worldview— Environmental ethics are … ______________________________ holds that we are separate from and in charge of nature.
People have different views about environmental problems and their solutions _____________________ holds that we can and should manage the earth for our benefit, but that we have an ethical responsibility to be caring and responsible managers. ______________________ holds that we are part of, and dependent on, nature and that nature exists for all species, not just for us.
WHAT IS AN ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE SOCIETY?
What is an environmentally sustainable society? Environmentally sustainable societies protect natural capital and live off its income. – We can work together to solve environmental problems. –