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LIVING IN THE ENVIRONMENT 17 TH MILLER/SPOOLMAN CHAPTER 1 Environmental Problems, Their Causes, and Sustainability.

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Presentation on theme: "LIVING IN THE ENVIRONMENT 17 TH MILLER/SPOOLMAN CHAPTER 1 Environmental Problems, Their Causes, and Sustainability."— Presentation transcript:

1 LIVING IN THE ENVIRONMENT 17 TH MILLER/SPOOLMAN CHAPTER 1 Environmental Problems, Their Causes, and Sustainability

2 Core Case Study: A Vision of a More _______World in 2060 A transition in human _______ toward the environment, and a shift in _______, can lead to a much better future for the planet in _______. ___________: the capacity of the earth’s natural systems and human cultural systems to _______, flourish, and adapt into the very _________ future

3 Fig. 1-1a, p. 5

4 1-1 What Are _______ Principles of Sustainability? Concept 1-1A Nature has sustained itself for billions of years by using ______ energy, biodiversity, and ________ cycling. Concept 1-1B Our _____ and _______ depend on energy from the sun and on natural resources and natural services (natural capital) provided by the _______.

5 Environmental Science Is a Study of Connections in Nature (1) Environment: Everything around us “The environment is __________ that isn’t ____.“ ________________: interdisciplinary science connecting information and ideas from _____________: ecology, biology, geology, chemistry… _____________: geography, politics, economics ____________: ethics, philosophy

6 Environmental Science Is a Study of Connections in Nature (2) How nature works How the environment affects us How we affect the environment How to deal with environmental problems How to live more sustainably

7 Nature’s Survival Strategies Follow Three Principles of Sustainability 1.Reliance on ______________ The sun provides warmth and fuels photosynthesis 2._______________ Astounding variety and adaptability of natural systems and species 3.________________ Circulation of chemicals from the environment to organisms and then back to the environment Also called ____________________

8 Fig. 1-2, p. 7 First simple cells appear (about 3.5 billion years ago) First multicellular life appears (about 1 billion years ago) First major land plants appear (about 475 million years ago) Dinosaurs disappear (about 65 million years ago) Homo sapiens arrives (about 200,000 years ago) From Simple Cell to Homo Sapiens

9 ____________ _______________ _____________ Fig. 1-3, p. 8 Three Principles of Sustainability

10 Sustainability Has Certain Key Components ______________: supported by solar capital Natural __________: useful materials and energy in nature Natural __________: important nature ____________ such as renewal of air, water, and soil Humans _________ natural capital Scientific solutions needed for environmental sustainability

11 Natural Capital = Natural Resources + Natural Services Fig. 1-4, p. 9

12 Natural Capital Solar energy Air Air purification Climate control UV protection (ozone layer) Life (biodiversity) Water Population control Pest control Waste treatment Nonrenewable minerals (iron, sand) Soil Land Soil renewal Food production Natural gas Nutrient recycling Nonrenewable energy (fossil fuels) Coal seam Natural resources Natural services Oil Natural Capital = Natural Resources + Natural Services Renewable energy (sun, wind, water flows) Water purification Fig. 1-4, p. 9

13 Fig. 1-5, p. 10 Organic matter in animals Dead organic matter Organic matter in plants Decomposition Inorganic matter in soil Nutrient Cycling

14 Natural Capital Degradation Fig. 1-6, p. 10

15 Some Sources Are Renewable and Some Are Not (1) ____________ Anything we _________ from the ___________ to meet our needs Some ________ available for use: sunlight Some _____ directly available for use: petroleum __________ resource Solar energy

16 Some Sources Are Renewable and Some Are Not (2) ___________ resource Several _____ to several ________ years to ______ E.g., forests, grasslands, fresh air, fertile soil ____________ yield ____________ rate at which we can ____ a renewable resource without reducing available ________

17 Some Sources Are Renewable and Some Are Not (3) ______________ resources Energy resources Metallic ________ resources __________ mineral resources _______

18 Reuse Fig. 1-7, p. 11

19 Recycle Fig. 1-8, p. 12

20 Countries Differ in Levels of Unsustainability _________________: increase in output of a nation’s ________ and ________ ________________ (GDP): annual _________ ________of all goods and services produced by all businesses, foreign and domestic, operating within a country __________________: one __________ of economic development

21 Countries Differ in Levels of Unsustainability Economic ____________: using economic _______ to raise _______ standards More-__________countries: North America, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, most of Europe _______-developed countries: most countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America

22 Countries by Gross National Income per Capita Supplement 8, Fig 2

23 How Are Our _________ Footprints Affecting the ______? As our ecological __________ grow, we are depleting and degrading more of the earth’s ________ capital. Also called a ________ footprint!

24 We Are Living _____________? Environmental ____________: wasting, depleting, and degrading the earth’s natural capital Happening at an ______________ rate Also called _______ _________ _________

25 Natural Capital Degradation Fig. 1-9, p. 13

26 Pollution Comes from a Number of Sources Sources of pollution _________ sources E.g., ___________ _________ sources E.g., pesticides blown into the ____ Main type of pollutants ____degradable Unwanted effects of pollution

27 Pollution Comes from a Number of Sources Pollution cleanup (__________ pollution control) Pollution prevention (_______ pollution control)

28 Point-Source Air Pollution Fig. 1-10, p. 14

29 Nonpoint Source Water Pollution Fig. 1-11, p. 14

30 ____________ Shared Renewable Resources: ________ of the _________ Three types of property or _________ rights ___________ property _______ access renewable resources __________ of the commons __________ property and ______-access renewable resources _________ from overuse Solutions

31 Ecological Footprints: A Model of Unsustainable Use of Resources ________ __________: the amount of biologically productive land and water needed to provide the people in a region with __________ supply of renewable resources, and to absorb and recycle wastes and pollution ____ _______ecological footprint – ________ footprint of an __________ in a given country or area ____________: footprint is _______ than biological capacity for replenishment

32 Patterns of Natural Resource Consumption Fig. 1-12a, p. 15

33 Patterns of Natural Resource Consumption Fig. 1-12b, p. 15

34 Natural Capital Use and Degradation Fig. 1-13, p. 16

35 Global Human Footprint Map

36 IPAT is Another Environmental Impact Model I = P x A x T I = _____________ impact P = __________ A = __________ T = __________

37 IPAT Illustrated Fig. 1-14, p. 17

38 Case Study: _______ New Affluent Consumers Leading consumer of various _______ and ________ Wheat, rice, and meat Coal, fertilizers, steel, and cement __________ largest consumer of oil Two-thirds of the most _________ cities are in China Projections for next decade _________ consumer and producer of cars

39 Natural Systems Have Tipping Points Ecological ________ point: an often irreversible shift in the behavior of a _________ system Environmental degradation has time _______ between our actions now and the __________ effects later Long-term ________ change Over-________ Species ________

40 Tipping Point Fig. 1-15, p. 19

41 Cultural Changes Have _________ Our Ecological Footprints 12,000 years ago: hunters and gatherers Three major cultural events ____________ revolution ___________-medical revolution __________-globalization revolution Current need for a _____________ revolution

42 Information-globalization revolution Human population Industrial-medical revolution Agricultural revolution 12,500 yrs ago275 yrs ago50 yrs agoPresent Time (not to scale) Fig. 1-16, p. 19 Technology Increases Population

43 Experts Have Identified Four Basic Causes of Environmental Problems 1.Population growth 2.Wasteful and unsustainable resource use 3.Poverty 4.Failure to include the harmful environmental costs of goods and services in market prices

44 Fig. 1-17, p. 20 Causes of Environmental Problems Population growth Unsustainable resource use Poverty Excluding environmental costs from market prices Causes of Environmental Problems

45 Exponential Growth of Human Population Fig. 1-18, p. 21

46 Affluence Has Harmful and Beneficial Environmental Effects Harmful environmental impact due to High levels of _____________ High levels of ___________ Unnecessary ________ of resources ____________ can provide funding for developing technologies to reduce Pollution Environmental degradation Resource waste

47 Poverty Has Harmful Environmental and Health Effects Population growth affected Malnutrition Premature death Limited access to adequate sanitation facilities and clean water

48 Extreme Poverty Fig. 1-19, p. 22

49 Harmful Effects of Poverty Fig. 1-20, p. 22

50 Effects of Malnutrition Fig. 1-21, p. 23

51 Prices Do Not Include the Value of Natural Capital Companies do not pay the _____________ cost of resource use _______ and ________ do not include the harmful environmental costs Companies receive ______ breaks and _________ Economy may be __________ but there may be a degradation of natural capital

52 Environmentally Unfriendly Hummer Fig. 1-22, p. 24

53 Different Views about Environmental Problems and Their Solutions ___________ ethics: what is right and wrong with how we treat the environment Planetary management worldview We are __________ from and in charge of nature _____________ worldview Manage earth for our benefit with ethical responsibility to be stewards Environmental _________ worldview We are part of nature and must engage in sustainable use

54 What Is an Environmentally Sustainable Society? Living off the earth’s _________ income without ___________ or ________ the natural capital that supplies it. Environmentally __________ society: _____ current needs while ensuring that needs of ______ generations will be met Live on natural income of ________ capital without diminishing the natural capital

55 We Can Work Together to Solve Environmental Problems ________ capital – getting people with different values, etc. to talk about building more sustainable _________ and __________. Encourages Openness and communication Cooperation Hope Discourages Close-mindedness Polarization Confrontation and fear

56 Individuals Matter 5–10% of the population can bring about _______ social change We have only _________ years to make the change to sustainability before it’s too late Rely on _____________ energy Protect biodiversity Reduce waste and pollution Sustain earth’s natural _________ cycles by reducing wastes and pollution, and not removing natural chemicals faster than those chemical cycles can replace them.

57 Case Study: The Environmental Transformation of Chattanooga, TN Environmental ________ story: example of building their social capital 1960: _______ polluted city in the U.S. 1984: Vision 2000 1995: _______ goals met 1993: Revision _______

58 Chattanooga, Tennessee I Fig. 1-23, p. 26

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