Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 1 Environmental Problems, Their Causes, and Sustainability"— Presentation transcript:
1CHAPTER 1 Environmental Problems, Their Causes, and Sustainability
2Core Case Study: A Vision of a More Sustainable World in 2060 A transition in human attitudes toward the environment, and a shift in behavior, can lead to a much better future for the planet in 2060Sustainability: the capacity of the earth’s natural systems and human cultural systems to survive, flourish, and adapt into the very long-term future
31-1 What Are Three Principles of Sustainability? Concept 1-1A Nature has sustained itself for billions of years by using solar energy, biodiversity, and nutrient cycling.Concept 1-1B Our lives and economies depend on energy from the sun and on natural resources and natural services (natural capital) provided by the earth.
4Environmental Science Is a Study of Connections in Nature (1) Everything around us“The environment is everything that isn’t me.“Environmental science: interdisciplinary science connecting information and ideas fromNatural sciences: ecology, biology, geology, chemistry…Social sciences: geography, politics, economicsHumanities: ethics, philosophy
5Environmental Science Is a Study of Connections in Nature (2) How nature worksHow the environment affects usHow we affect the environmentHow to deal with environmental problemsHow to live more sustainably
6Nature’s Survival Strategies Follow Three Principles of Sustainability Reliance on solar energyThe sun provides warmth and fuels photosynthesisBiodiversityAstounding variety and adaptability of natural systems and speciesChemical cyclingCirculation of chemicals from the environment to organisms and then back to the environmentAlso called nutrient cycling
7Three Principles of Sustainability Figure 1.3: Three principles of sustainability.We derive these three interconnected principles of sustainability from learning how nature has sustained a huge variety of life on the earth for at least 3.5 billion years, despite drastic changes in environmental conditions (Concept 1-1a).
8Sustainability Has Certain Key Components Natural capital: supported by solar capitalNatural resources: useful materials and energy in natureNatural services: important nature processes such as renewal of air, water, and soilHumans degrade natural capitalScientific solutions needed for environmental sustainability
9Nutrient CyclingFigure 1.5: Nutrient cycling: This important natural service recycles chemicals needed by organisms from the environment (mostly from soil and water) through those organisms and back to the environment.Fig. 1-5, p. 10
10Natural Capital Degradation Figure 1.6: Natural capital degradation.This was once a large area of diverse tropical rain forest in Brazil, but it has now been cleared to grow soybeans. According to ecologist Harold Mooney of Stanford University, conservative estimates suggest that between 1992 and 2008, an area of tropical rain forest larger than the U.S. state of California was destroyed in order to graze cattle and plant crops for food and biofuels.Fig. 1-6, p. 10
11Some Sources Are Renewable and Some Are Not (1) ResourceAnything we obtain from the environment to meet our needsSome directly available for use: sunlightSome not directly available for use: petroleumPerpetual resourceSolar energy
12Some Sources Are Renewable and Some Are Not (2) Renewable resourceSeveral days to several hundred years to renewE.g., forests, grasslands, fresh air, fertile soilSustainable yieldHighest rate at which we can use a renewable resource without reducing available supply12
13Some Sources Are Renewable and Some Are Not (3) Nonrenewable resourcesEnergy resourcesMetallic mineral resourcesNonmetallic mineral resourcesReuseRecycle
14ReuseFigure 1.7: Reuse: This child and his family in Katmandu, Nepal, collect beer bottles and sell them for cash to a brewery that will reuse them.Fig. 1-7, p. 11
15RecycleFigure 1.8: Recycling: This family is carrying out items for recycling. Scientists estimate that we could recycle and reuse 80–90% of the resources that we now use and thus come closer to mimicking the way nature recycles essentially everything. Recycling is important but it involves dealing with wastes we have produced. Ideally, we should focus more on using less, reusing items, and reducing our unnecessary waste of resources.Fig. 1-8, p. 12
16Countries Differ in Levels of Unsustainability (1) Economic growth: increase in output of a nation’s goods and servicesGross domestic product (GDP): annual market value of all goods and services produced by all businesses, foreign and domestic, operating within a countryPer capita GDP: one measure of economic development
17Countries Differ in Levels of Unsustainability (2) Economic development: using economic growth to raise living standardsMore-developed countries: North America, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, most of EuropeLess-developed countries: most countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America
18Countries by Gross National Income per Capita Figure 2 This map shows high-income, upper-middle income, lower-middle-income, and low-income countries in terms of gross national income (GNI) PPP per capita (U.S. dollars) in (Data from World Bank and International Monetary Fund)Supplement 8, Fig 2
191-2 How Are Our Ecological Footprints Affecting the Earth? Concept 1-2 As our ecological footprints grow, we are depleting and degrading more of the earth’s natural capital.
20We Are Living Unsustainably Environmental degradation: wasting, depleting, and degrading the earth’s natural capitalHappening at an accelerating rateAlso called natural capital degradation
21Natural Capital Degradation Figure 1.9: These are examples of the degradation of normally renewable natural resources and services in parts of the world, mostly as a result of rising populations and resource use per person.Fig. 1-9, p. 13
22Pollution Comes from a Number of Sources (1) Sources of pollutionPoint sourcesE.g., smokestackNonpoint sourcesE.g., pesticides blown into the airMain type of pollutantsBiodegradableNondegradableUnwanted effects of pollution
23Pollution Comes from a Number of Sources (2) Pollution cleanup (output pollution control)Pollution prevention (input pollution control)
24Point-Source Air Pollution Figure 1.10: This point-source air pollution rises from a pulp mill in New York State (USA).Fig. 1-10, p. 14
25Nonpoint Source Water Pollution Figure 1.11: The trash in this river came from a large area of land and is an example of nonpoint water pollution.Fig. 1-11, p. 14
26Overexploiting Shared Renewable Resources: Tragedy of the Commons Three types of property or resource rightsPrivate propertyCommon propertyOpen access renewable resourcesTragedy of the commonsCommon property and open-access renewable resources degraded from overuseSolutions
27Ecological Footprints: A Model of Unsustainable Use of Resources Ecological footprint: the amount of biologically productive land and water needed to provide the people in a region with indefinite supply of renewable resources, and to absorb and recycle wastes and pollutionPer capita ecological footprintUnsustainable: footprint is larger than biological capacity for replenishment
28Patterns of Natural Resource Consumption Figure 1.12: Patterns of natural resource consumption: The top photo shows a family of five subsistence farmers with all their possessions. They live in the village of Shingkhey, Bhutan, in the Himalaya Mountains, which are sandwiched between China and India in South Asia. The bottom photo shows a typical U.S. family of four living in Pearland, Texas, with their possessions.Fig. 1-12a, p. 15
29Patterns of Natural Resource Consumption Figure 1.12: Patterns of natural resource consumption: The top photo shows a family of five subsistence farmers with all their possessions. They live in the village of Shingkhey, Bhutan, in the Himalaya Mountains, which are sandwiched between China and India in South Asia. The bottom photo shows a typical U.S. family of four living in Pearland, Texas, with their possessions.Fig. 1-12b, p. 1529
30Per Capita Ecological Footprint (hectares per person) Total Ecological Footprint (million hectares) and Share of Global Biological Capacity (%)Per Capita Ecological Footprint (hectares per person)United StatesUnited States2,810 (25%)9.7European Union2,160 (19%)European Union4.7China2,050 (18%)China1.6India780 (7%)India0.8Japan540 (5%)Japan4.82.5Unsustainable living2.0Number of Earths1.5Projected footprintFigure 1.13: Natural capital use and degradation.These graphs show the total and per capita ecological footprints of selected countries (top). In 2008, humanity’s total, or global, ecological footprint was at least 30% higher than the earth’s biological capacity (bottom) and is projected to be twice the planet’s biological capacity by around Question: If we are living beyond the earth’s renewable biological capacity, why do you think the human population and per capita resource consumption are still growing rapidly? (Data from Worldwide Fund for Nature, Global Footprint Network, Living Planet Report See1.0Ecological footprint0.5Sustainable living1961197019801990200020102020203020402050YearFig. 1-13, p. 16
31IPAT is Another Environmental Impact Model I = P x A x TI = Environmental impactP = PopulationA = AffluenceT = Technology
32Less-Developed Countries Consumption per person (affluence, A)Technological impact per unit of consumption (T)Environmental impact of population (I)Population (P)Figure 1.14: Connections: This simple model demonstrates how three factors—number of people, affluence (resource use per person), and technology—affect the environmental impact of populations in less-developed countries (top) and more-developed countries (bottom).More-Developed CountriesFig. 1-14, p. 17
33Natural Systems Have Tipping Points Ecological tipping point: an often irreversible shift in the behavior of a natural systemEnvironmental degradation has time delays between our actions now and the deleterious effects laterLong-term climate changeOver-fishingSpecies extinction
34Cultural Changes Have Increased Our Ecological Footprints 12,000 years ago: hunters and gatherersThree major cultural eventsAgricultural revolutionIndustrial-medical revolutionInformation-globalization revolutionCurrent need for a sustainability revolution
35Technology Increases Population Figure 1.16: Technological innovations have led to greater human control over the rest of nature and to an expanding human population.Fig. 1-16, p. 19
361-3 Why Do We Have Environmental Problems? Concept 1-3 Major causes of environmental problems are population growth, wasteful and unsustainable resource use, poverty, and exclusion of environmental costs of resource use from the market prices of goods and services.
37Experts Have Identified Four Basic Causes of Environmental Problems Population growthWasteful and unsustainable resource usePovertyFailure to include the harmful environmental costs of goods and services in market prices
38Causes of Environmental Problems Population growthUnsustainable resource usePovertyExcluding environmental costs from market pricesFigure 1.17: Environmental and social scientists have identified four basic causes of the environmental problems we face (Concept 1-3). Question: For each of these causes, what are two environmental problems that result?Fig. 1-17, p. 20
39Industrial revolution 131211109?87Billions of people6543Industrial revolution2Figure 1.18: Exponential growth: The J-shaped curve represents past exponential world population growth, with projections to 2100 showing possible population stabilization as the J-shaped curve of growth changes to an S-shaped curve. (This figure is not to scale.) (Data from the World Bank and United Nations, 2008; photo L. Yong/UNEP/Peter Arnold, Inc.)Black Death—the Plague12–5 million years800060004000200020002100TimeB. C.A. D.Hunting and gatheringAgricultural revolutionIndustrial revolutionFig. 1-18, p. 21
40Affluence Has Harmful and Beneficial Environmental Effects Harmful environmental impact due toHigh levels of consumptionHigh levels of pollutionUnnecessary waste of resourcesAffluence can provide funding for developing technologies to reducePollutionEnvironmental degradationResource waste
41Poverty Has Harmful Environmental and Health Effects Population growth affectedMalnutritionPremature deathLimited access to adequate sanitation facilities and clean water
42Extreme PovertyFigure 1.19: Extreme poverty: This boy is searching through an open dump in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for items to sell. Many children of poor families who live in makeshift shantytowns in or near such dumps often scavenge most of the day for food and other items to help their families survive.Fig. 1-19, p. 22
43Harmful Effects of Poverty Figure 1.20: These are some of the harmful effects of poverty. Questions: Which two of these effects do you think are the most harmful? Why? (Data from United Nations, World Bank, and World Health Organization)Fig. 1-20, p. 22
44Effects of Malnutrition Figure 1.21: Global Outlook: One of every three children younger than age 5, such as this child in Lunda, Angola, suffers from severe malnutrition caused by a lack of calories and protein. According to the World Health Organization, each day at least 16,400 children younger than age 5 die prematurely from malnutrition and from infectious diseases often caused by drinking contaminated water.Fig. 1-21, p. 23
45Prices Do Not Include the Value of Natural Capital Companies do not pay the environmental cost of resource useGoods and services do not include the harmful environmental costsCompanies receive tax breaks and subsidiesEconomy may be stimulated but there may be a degradation of natural capital
46Environmentally Unfriendly Hummer Figure 1.22: This Hummer H3 sport utility vehicle burns a great deal of fuel compared to other, more efficient vehicles. It therefore adds more pollutants to the atmosphere and, being a very heavy vehicle, does more damage to the roads and land on which it is driven. It also requires more material and energy to build and maintain than most other vehicles on the road. These harmful costs are not included in the price of the vehicle.Fig. 1-22, p. 24
47Different Views about Environmental Problems and Their Solutions Environmental ethics: what is right and wrong with how we treat the environmentPlanetary management worldviewWe are separate from and in charge of natureStewardship worldviewManage earth for our benefit with ethical responsibility to be stewardsEnvironmental wisdom worldviewWe are part of nature and must engage in sustainable use
481-4 What Is an Environmentally Sustainable Society? Concept 1-4 Living sustainably means living off the earth’s natural income without depleting or degrading the natural capital that supplies it.
49Environmentally Sustainable Societies Protect Natural Capital and Live Off Its Income Environmentally sustainable society: meets current needs while ensuring that needs of future generations will be metLive on natural income of natural capital without diminishing the natural capital
50We Can Work Together to Solve Environmental Problems Social capitalEncouragesOpenness and communicationCooperationHopeDiscouragesClose-mindednessPolarizationConfrontation and fear
51Case Study: The Environmental Transformation of Chattanooga, TN Environmental success story: example of building their social capital1960: most polluted city in the U.S.1984: Vision 20001995: most goals met1993: Revision 2000
52Chattanooga, Tennessee IFigure 1.23: Since 1984, citizens have worked together to make the city of Chattanooga, Tennessee, one of the best and most sustainable places to live in the United States.Fig. 1-23, p. 26
53Individuals Matter5–10% of the population can bring about major social changeWe have only years to make the change to sustainability before it’s too lateRely on renewable energyProtect biodiversityReduce waste and pollution
54Wind PowerFigure 1.24: Capturing wind power is one of the world’s most rapidly growing and least environmentally harmful ways to produce electricity.Fig. 1-24, p. 27
55Planting a TreeFigure 1.25: This young child—like the grandchild of Emily and Michael in our fictional scenario of a possible future (Core Case study)—is promoting sustainability by preparing to plant a tree. A global program to plant and tend billions of trees each year will help to restore degraded lands, promote biodiversity, and reduce the threat of climate change from atmospheric warming.Fig. 1-25, p. 27
56Three Big Ideas1. We could rely more on renewable energy from the sun, including indirect forms of solar energy such as wind and flowing water, to meet most of our heating and electricity needs.2. We can protect biodiversity by preventing the degradation of the earth’s species, ecosystems, and natural processes, and by restoring areas we have degraded.
57Three Big IdeasWe can help to sustain the earth’s natural chemical cycles by reducing our production of wastes and pollution, not overloading natural systems with harmful chemicals, and not removing natural chemicals faster than those chemical cycles can replace them.