4 2–5 million years Hunting and gathering Industrial revolution 131211109?87Billions of people6543Industrial revolution2Black Death—the PlagueFigure 1.1Exponential growth: the J-shaped curve of past exponential world population growth, with projections to 2100 showing possible population stabilization with the J-shaped curve of growth changing to an S-shaped curve. (This figure is not to scale.) (Data from the World Bank and United Nations; photo L. Yong/UNEP/Peter Arnold, Inc)12–5 millionyears800060004000200020002100TimeB. C.A. D.Hunting andgatheringAgricultural revolutionIndustrialrevolutionFig. 1-1, p. 5
5 1-1 What Is an Environmentally Sustainable Society? Concept 1-1A Our lives and economies depend on energy from the sun (solar capital) and on natural resources and natural services (natural capital) provided by the earth.Concept 1-1B Living sustainability means living off the earth’s natural income without depleting or degrading the natural capital that supplies it.
6 Environmental Science Is a Study of Connections in Nature (1) Interdisciplinary science connecting information and ideas fromNatural sciences, with an emphasis on ecologySocial sciencesHumanities
7 Environmental Science Is a Study of Connections in Nature (2) How nature worksHow the environment affects usHow we affect the environmentHow to deal with environmental problemsHow to live more sustainably
8 Major Fields of Study Related to Environmental Science
9 Environmental Science Is an Interdisciplinary Study
10 Ethics Philosophy Biology Political science Ecology Economics ChemistryDemographyFigure 1.2Environmental science is an interdisciplinary study of connections between the earth’s life-support system and human activities.PhysicsAnthropologyGeologyGeographyFig. 1-2, p. 7
11 Sustainability Is the Central Theme of This Book Natural capital: supported by solar capitalNatural resourcesNatural servicesE.g., nutrient cyclingDegradation of natural capital through human activitiesScientific solutions
12 Natural Capital = Natural Resources + Natural Services
13 NATURAL CAPITAL Natural Capital = Natural Resources + Natural Services SolarcapitalAirAir purificationRenewableenergy(sun, wind,water flows)Climate controlUV protection(ozone layer)Life(biodiversity)WaterPopulationcontrolWater purificationWaste treatmentPestcontrolFigure 1.3Key natural resources (blue) and natural services (orange) that support and sustain the earth’s life and economies (Concept 1-1A).Nonrenewablemineralsiron, sand)LandSoilFood productionSoil renewalNatural gasNutrientrecyclingOilNonrenewableenergy(fossil fuels)Coal seamNatural resourcesNatural servicesFig. 1-3, p. 8Fig. 1-3, p. 8
15 Organic matter in animals Dead organic matter Organic matter in plants Figure 1.4Nutrient cycling: an important natural service that recycles chemicals needed by organisms from the environment (mostly from soil and water) through organisms and back to the environment.DecompositionInorganicmatter in soilFig. 1-4, p. 9
16 Environmentally Sustainable Societies Protect Natural Capital and Live off Its Income Live off natural incomeHuman activity and its affect on the earth’s natural capital
17 1-2 How Can Environmentally Sustainable Societies Grow Economically? Concept 1-2 Societies can become more environmentally sustainable through economic development dedicated to improving the quality of life for everyone without degrading the earth's life support systems.
18 There Is a Wide Economic Gap between Rich and Poor Countries Country’s economic growth: measured by gross domestic product (GDP)Changes in economic growth: measured by per capita GDPPurchasing power parity (PPP) plus GDP are combined for per capita GDP PPPCompare developed with developing countries
19 Comparison of Developed and Developing Countries, 2008
20 Percentage of World's: 18% Population 82% Population growth 0.12% 1.46%Lifeexpectancy77 years67 yearsWealth andincome85%15%Figure 1.5Global outlook: comparison of developed and developing countries, (Data from the United Nations and the World Bank)Resourceuse88%12%Pollutionand waste75%25%Developed countriesDeveloping countriesFig. 1-5, p. 11
22 1-3 How Are Our Ecological Footprints Affecting the Earth? Concept 1-3 As our ecological footprints grow, we are depleting and degrading more of the earth’s natural capital.
23 Some Sources Are Renewable (1) ResourceDirectly available for useNot directly available for usePerpetual resourceSolar energy
24 Some Sources Are Renewable (2) Renewable resourceE.g., forests, grasslands, fresh air, fertile soilSustainable yieldEnvironmental degradation24
25 Degradation of Normally Renewable Natural Resources and Services
26 Overexploiting Shared Renewable Resources: Tragedy of the Commons Three types of property or resource rightsPrivate propertyCommon propertyOpen access renewable resourcesTragedy of the commonsSolutions
27 Some Resources Are Not Renewable Nonrenewable resourcesEnergy resourcesMetallic mineral resourcesNonmetallic mineral resourcesReuseRecycle
33 Projected footprint Earth's ecological capacity Ecological footprint Total Ecological Footprint (million hectares)and Share of Global Ecological Capacity (%)Per Capita Ecological Footprint(hectares per person)United States2,810 (25%)United States9.7European Union2,160 (19%)European Union4.7China2,050 (18%)China1.6India780 (7%)India0.8Japan540 (5%)Japan4.8Projected footprintEarth'secologicalcapacityNumber of EarthsFigure 1.10Natural capital use and degradation: total and per capita ecological footprints of selected countries (top). In 2003, humanity’s total or global ecological footprint was about 25% higher than the earth’s ecological capacity (bottom) and is projected to be twice the planet’s ecological capacity by Question: If we are living beyond the earth’s biological capacity, why do you think the human population and per capita resource consumption are still growing exponentially? (Data from Worldwide Fund for Nature, Global Footprint Network)EcologicalfootprintFig. 1-10, p. 15
34 Projected footprint Earth's ecological capacity Ecological footprint Total Ecological Footprint (million hectares)and Share of Global Ecological Capacity (%)United StatesEuropean UnionChinaIndiaJapan2,810 (25%)2,160 (19%)2,050 (18%)780 (7%)540 (5%)United StatesEuropean UnionChinaIndiaJapan220.127.116.11.84.8Per Capita Ecological Footprint(hectares per person)Number of EarthsEcologicalfootprintEarth'secologicalcapacityProjected footprintFigure 1.10Natural capital use and degradation: total and per capita ecological footprints of selected countries (top). In 2003, humanity’s total or global ecological footprint was about 25% higher than the earth’s ecological capacity (bottom) and is projected to be twice the planet’s ecological capacity by Question: If we are living beyond the earth’s biological capacity, why do you think the human population and per capita resource consumption are still growing exponentially? (Data from Worldwide Fund for Nature, Global Footprint Network)Stepped ArtFig. 1-10, p. 15
35 Case Study: China’s New Affluent Consumers (1) Leading consumer of various foods and goodsWheat, rice, and meatCoal, fertilizers, steel, and cementSecond largest consumer of oil
36 Case Study: China’s New Affluent Consumers (2) Two-thirds of the most polluted cities are in ChinaProjections, by 2020Largest consumer and producer of carsWorld’s leading economy in terms of GDP PPP36
37 Cultural Changes Have Increased Our Ecological Footprints 12,000 years ago: hunters and gatherersThree major cultural eventsAgricultural revolutionIndustrial-medical revolutionInformation-globalization revolution
38 1-4 What Is Pollution and What Can We Do about It? Concept 1-4 Preventing pollution is more effective and less costly than cleaning up pollution.
39 Pollution Comes from a Number of Sources Pollution – anything in the environment that is harmful to the health, survival, or activities of humans or other organismsSources of PollutionPoint (Identifiable) - E.g., smokestack, drainpipe, exhaustNonpoint (Dispersed)- E.g., pesticides blown into the airMain Type of PollutantsBiodegradable – broken down by natural processesNondegradable – natural processes cannot break downUnwanted Effects of PollutionDisrupt or degrade life-support systemsDamage wildlife, health, propertyCreate nuisances
41 We Can Clean Up Pollution or Prevent It Pollution Clean Up (output pollution control)After productionPollution Prevention (input pollution control)Prior to productionProblems with Clean UpTemporary bandageRemoves pollutant from one area, puts it in anotherHigh cost or impossible to reduce pollution to acceptable levels
42 1-5 Why Do We Have Environmental Problems? (1) Concept 1-5A Major causes of environmental problems are population growth, wasteful and unsustainable resource use, poverty, exclusion of environmental costs of resource use from the market prices of goods and services, and attempts to manage nature with insufficient knowledge.
43 1-5 Why Do We Have Environmental Problems? (2) Concept 1-5B People with different environmental worldviews often disagree about the seriousness of environmental problems and what we should do about them.
44 Experts Have Identified Five Basic Causes of Environmental Problems Population growthWasteful and unsustainable resource usePovertyFailure to include the harmful environmental costs of goods and services in their market pricesInsufficient knowledge of how nature works
46 Poverty Has Harmful Environmental and Health Effects Poverty – people are unable to meet their basic needs for adequate food, water, shelter, health, and educationShort-term survival means depleting and degrading at increased rates; no luxury of worrying about sustainability or qualityPopulation Growth AffectedMore children means survivalMalnutritionDegradation increase povertyLack of protein and nutrition; clean water and sanitationPremature Death7 million people a year; 2/3 are under the age of 5
49 Affluence Has Harmful and Beneficial Environmental Effects Harmful environmental impact due toHigh levels of consumptionUnnecessary waste of resourcesBuying more = happiness27 tractor trailers of resources for ONE American30 times as much as average citizen in India, 100 times as poorest countriesAffluence can lead to higher concern and provide funding for developing technologies to reduce:Pollution, Environmental degradation, Resource waste
50 Prices Do Not Include the Value of Natural Capital Companies do not pay the environmental cost of resource useCost of catching fish, not for depletion of fishPrices of goods and services do not include the harmful environmental costsCompanies receive tax breaks and subsidiesEconomy may be stimulated but there may be a degradation of natural capital
51 Different Views about Environmental Problems and Their Solutions Environmental Worldview – set of assumptions and values reflecting how you think the world works and your role in the worldEnvironmental Ethics – belief about what is right and wrong with how we treat the environmentEnvironmental Worldview including environmental ethicsPlanetary management worldview – we are separate from nature, nature exists to meet our needs, manage earth’s life-support system for our benefitStewardship worldview – can and should manage world for our benefit, ethical responsibility to be caring and responsible managers of earthEnvironmental wisdom worldview – part of and dependent on nature, nature exists for all species; encourage earth sustaining forms of economic growth and development
52 We Can Learn to Make Informed Environmental Decisions Scientific researchIdentify and evaluate problem and multiple solutionsConsider human values
53 Steps Involved in Making an Environmental Decision
54 We Can Work Together to Solve Environmental Problems Social capitalEncouragesOpenness and communicationCooperationHopeDiscouragesClose-mindednessPolarizationConfrontation and fear
55 Case Study: The Environmental Transformation of Chattanooga, TN Environmental success story: example of building their social capital1960: most polluted city in the U.S.1984: Vision 20001995: most goals met1993: Revision 2000
57 Individuals Matter: Aldo Leopold 5–10% of the population can bring about major social change; occur quicker than you thinkAnthropologist Margaret Mead“Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. Indeed, it is the only think that ever has.”Aldo Leopold: environmental ethicsA leader of the conservation and environmental movements of the 20th centuryLand ethicWrote: A Sand County Almanac
58 1-6 What Are Four Scientific Principles of Sustainability? Concept 1- 6 Nature has sustained itself for billions of years by using solar energy, biodiversity, population control, and nutrient cycling—lessons from nature that we can apply to our lifestyles and economies.
59 Studying Nature Reveals Four Scientific Principles of Sustainability Reliance on solar energyHeat, photosynthesisBiodiversityLife adapt to changing environmental conditionsPopulation controlCompetition limits how much a population can growNutrient cyclingRecycle chemicals needed to sustain life; no waste50 – 100 Years to make Crucial Changes!!