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10-1©2005 Prentice Hall 11 The Nature of Work Groups and Teams Chapter 11 The Nature of Work Groups and Teams.

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Presentation on theme: "10-1©2005 Prentice Hall 11 The Nature of Work Groups and Teams Chapter 11 The Nature of Work Groups and Teams."— Presentation transcript:

1 10-1©2005 Prentice Hall 11 The Nature of Work Groups and Teams Chapter 11 The Nature of Work Groups and Teams

2 10-2 ©2005 Prentice Hall Chapter Objectives  Describe the different types of work groups and the difference between a group and a team  Appreciate the characteristics of work groups and their effects on the behavior of group members  Describe how groups control their members through roles, rules, and norms

3 10-3 ©2005 Prentice Hall Chapter Objectives  Appreciate the need for conformity and deviance in groups and why and how group goals need to be aligned with organizational goals  Understand the socialization process and how socialization tactics can result in an institutionalized or an individualized role orientation

4 10-4 ©2005 Prentice Hall When Is A Group A Group? InteractivityMutual Goal

5 10-5 ©2005 Prentice Hall Types of Work Groups Formal Work Groups Command Groups Task Forces Teams Self- Managed Work Teams

6 10-6 ©2005 Prentice Hall Types of Work Groups Informal Work Groups Friendship Groups Interest Groups

7 10-7 ©2005 Prentice Hall Figure 10.2 Five-Stage Model of Group Development Forming Storming Norming Performing Adjourning

8 10-8 ©2005 Prentice Hall Team Development: Stages Model FormingStormingNorming Performing Adjourning Adjourning (Dissolution) –Task completion and termination of roles Performing (Work) –High task and goal orientation Norming (Structure) –Cohesiveness and roles develop Storming (Conflict) –Disagreement and tension among members Forming (Orientation ) –Members become familiar with each other Adapted from Exhibit 11-4: Models of Team Development

9 10-9 ©2005 Prentice Hall First Stage: Norming Activities Focus on Socioemotional Roles Team Development: Punctuated Equilibrium Model Second Stage: Performing Activities Focus on Task Roles Task deadline approaches or half-way mark in teams’ tenure Adapted from Exhibit 11-4: Models of Team Development

10 10-10 ©2005 Prentice Hall Work Group Characteristics Work Group Characteristics Group Size Group Status Group Composition Group Function Group Efficacy Social Facilitation

11 10-11 ©2005 Prentice Hall How Large Should A Group Be? Benefits of Small Groups  Regular interaction  Ease of sharing information  Recognition of individual contributions to group  Strong identification with group  Higher group satisfaction Benefits of Large Groups  More resources  Division of labor

12 10-12 ©2005 Prentice Hall Social Loafing  Social loafing  Social loafing: The tendency for individuals to exert less effort when they work in a group than when they work alone.  Proposed causes of social loafing: – Lack of connection between inputs and outcomes – Perception that individual efforts are unnecessary or unimportant – Both causes are linked with group size  Sucker effect  Sucker effect: A condition in which some group members, not wishing to be considered suckers, reduce their own efforts when they see social loafing by other group members. 3

13 10-13 ©2005 Prentice Hall Ways to Reduce Social Loafing  Make individual contributions identifiable  Make individuals feel that they are making valuable contributions to a group  Keep the group as small as possible 4

14 10-14 ©2005 Prentice Hall Avoiding Social Loafing Make Individual Contributions Visible –Evaluation system in which everyone’s individual contributions are noted –Smaller rather than larger teams –Monitor who oversees everyone’s contributions Foster Task Cohesiveness –Team-level rewards to increase pressure –Teamwork training to develop a sense of cohesiveness –Select “team players” for teamwork High on agreeableness High on conscientiousness

15 10-15 ©2005 Prentice Hall Table 10.2 Group Composition  Benefits of Homogeneous groups –Collegiality amongst group members –Information sharing –Low levels of conflict –Few coordination problems  Benefits of Heterogeneous groups –Diversity of views represented –High performance –Variety of resources

16 10-16 ©2005 Prentice Hall Group Function  Communicates how work behaviors contribute to goal achievement  Provides sense of meaning (task identity)

17 10-17 ©2005 Prentice Hall 2

18 10-18 ©2005 Prentice Hall Advice to Managers  Whenever feasible, make individual contributions or individual levels of performance in a group identifiable, and evaluate these contributions.  When work is performed in groups, let each member know that he or she can make an important and worthwhile contribution to the group.  When you are unable to evaluate individual contributions to a group, consider having group members evaluate each other’s contributions and rewarding group members on the basis of group performance.  Keep work groups as small as possible while making sure that a group has enough resources (member knowledge, skills, experiences) to achieve its goals.  Whenever feasible, make individual contributions or individual levels of performance in a group identifiable, and evaluate these contributions.  When work is performed in groups, let each member know that he or she can make an important and worthwhile contribution to the group.  When you are unable to evaluate individual contributions to a group, consider having group members evaluate each other’s contributions and rewarding group members on the basis of group performance.  Keep work groups as small as possible while making sure that a group has enough resources (member knowledge, skills, experiences) to achieve its goals. 5

19 10-19 ©2005 Prentice Hall Task Interdependence Thompson’s model of group tasks helps managers identify Task characteristics that can lead to process losses. The most effective ways to distribute outcomes or rewards to group members to generate high motivation. The model is based on the concept of task interdependence, which is the extent to which the work performed by one member of a group affects what other members do. There are three types: Pooled Task Interdependence Sequential Task Interdependence Reciprocal Task Interdependence 6

20 10-20 ©2005 Prentice Hall Task Interdependence Pooled Task Interdependence: each member of a group makes separate and independent contributions to group performance. Sequential Task Interdependence: requires specific behaviors to be performed by group members in a predetermined order. Reciprocal Task Interdependence: the activities of all work group members are fully dependent on one another so that each member’s performance influences the performance of every other member of the group. 7

21 10-21 ©2005 Prentice Hall 8

22 10-22 ©2005 Prentice Hall Task Interdependence As task interdependence moves from pooled to sequential to reciprocal interdependence, the potential for process losses increases because Identifying individual performance becomes increasingly harder. Coordination becomes more difficult. The potential for process gains also increases as task interdependence becomes more complex because of the increased likelihood of synergy. Synergy: A process gain that occurs when members of a group acting together are able to produce more or better output than would have been produced by the combined efforts of each person acting alone. 9

23 10-23 ©2005 Prentice Hall Advice to Managers  When a group task involves pooled interdependence, allocate individual tasks to group members to avoid duplication of effort, and evaluate individual levels of performance and reward group members for their individual performance.  When a group task involves sequential interdependence, do as many of the following as feasible: Monitor on-the-job behaviors of group members. Reward group members for group performance. Assign workers with similar ability levels to the same group. Reward workers for good attendance. Have multiskilled workers available to fill in when needed.  When a group task involves reciprocal interdependence, do as many of the following as feasible: Keep group size small. Make sure that each group member knows that he or she can make a contribution. Reward group members for group performance. Increase physical or electronic proximity of members. Encourage clear and open communication. Encourage members to help one another as needed. 10

24 10-24 ©2005 Prentice Hall 11

25 10-25 ©2005 Prentice Hall Signs of Cohesiveness Low cohesiveness Low cohesiveness: Information flows slowly within the group, the group has little influence over its members’ behavior, and the group tends not to achieve its goals. Moderate cohesiveness Moderate cohesiveness: Group members work well together, there is a good level of communication and participation in the group, the group is able to influence its members’ behavior, and the group tends to achieve its goals. Very high cohesiveness Very high cohesiveness: Group members socialize excessively on the job, there is a very high level of conformity in the group and intolerance of deviance, and the group achieves its goals at the expense of other groups. 12

26 10-26 ©2005 Prentice Hall Factors Contributing to Group Effectiveness  Group Efficacy  Group composition  Ability to work well together  Coordination of efforts  Resources  Shared information  Development of effective strategies

27 10-27 ©2005 Prentice Hall Types of Social Facilitation Effects Social Facilitation Effects Audience EffectsCo-Action Effects

28 10-28 ©2005 Prentice Hall Figure 10.3 Social Facilitation Social Facilitation Presence of other group members enhances performance of repetitive tasks Presence of other group members impairs performance of difficult tasks

29 10-29 ©2005 Prentice Hall Group Member Control Mechanisms Roles NormsRules

30 10-30 ©2005 Prentice Hall Advantages of Rules  Ensure that members perform desired behaviors  Facilitate control of behavior  Facilitate evaluation of individual performance  Provide information for newcomers

31 10-31 ©2005 Prentice Hall Why Do Group Members Conform to Norms?  Compliance  Identification  Internalization

32 10-32 ©2005 Prentice Hall How Can Groups Respond to Deviants?  Attempt to change deviant  Expel deviant  Change norm

33 10-33 ©2005 Prentice Hall Figure 10.4 The Relationship Between Levels of Conformity and Deviance

34 10-34 ©2005 Prentice Hall Socialization and Role Orientation Role Orientations InstitutionalizedIndividualized

35 10-35 ©2005 Prentice Hall Table 10.3 Socialization Tactics Tactics Leading To An Institutionalized Orientation  Collective tactics  Formal tactics  Sequential tactics  Fixed tactics  Serial tactics  Divestiture tactics Tactics Leading To An Individualized Orientation  Individual tactics  Informal tactics  Random tactics  Variable tactics  Disjunctive tactics  Investiture tactics


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