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Acquiring, Processing, and Retaining Information

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Presentation on theme: "Acquiring, Processing, and Retaining Information"— Presentation transcript:

1 Acquiring, Processing, and Retaining Information
Chapter 8 Acquiring, Processing, and Retaining Information

2 I. Acquiring Information
Learning Curves Attention + motivation = rapid learning Engaged Chemicals in brain Learning curve Gradual increase in retained material

3 I. Acquiring Information
Chemical Influences on Learning Stimulants increase learning (too much is bad though) Depressants decrease learning *State-dependent learning

4 I. Acquiring Information
Emotional Factors in learning Having emotion involved increases learning Increases brain activity

5 I. Acquiring Information
Transfer of Training: transfer knowledge to new situations Positive Transfer: two similar tasks Use past task to help with new Negative Transfer: previously learned task interferes with learning new task Old task interferes with the new

6 III. Information Processing Theory
3 stages information passes through before it is stored Sensory Memory, Short Term Memory, Long Term Memory Long Term is where encoding happens

7 III. Information Processing Theory
Sensory Memory Iconic Memory (some not all encoded) Short-Term (Working Memory) Events encoded as visual, acoustic or semantic codes Selective attention – we encode what we are attending to Rehearsal, mnemonic devices encoding Long-Term Unlimited capacity for memory Episodic, Semantic, Procedural

8 III. Retaining Information
Short & Long Term Memory Amnesia: blocking of older memories/loss of new ones Serial position effect – order of items in a list Sequence of Memory Loss Primacy and Recency effect Primacy – remember the 1st things Recency – remember the last things

9 II. Info Processing Theory
Using a Schema: way of solving problems Importance of Organizing Information Concepts Prototypes

10 II. Info Processing Special Processes
Elaboration: Making maximum number of associations to a basic concept Easy retrieval Tie new information to old information Example: New=REM, Old=Dream REM=Dream

11 II. Info Processing Mnemonic Devices: memory aids
Method of Loci: Remember spatial relationships Acronyms: ROY G. BIV Narrative Chaining: Make a story to remember

12 II. Info Processing Principle Learning: learn basic idea
Chunking: Arranging things into clusters or chunks of information Spacing Effect: Retain more if you study a little bit over a longer period of time

13 III. Retaining Information
Principles of Forgetting Forgetting: errors when trying to recall memory The forgetting curve Overlearning: learn it over and over and over >1 Reptition “Oh Say Can You See _______” “Who Let the Dogs________”

14 III. Retaining Information
Recall & Recognition: Recall: ability to bring back and to integrate many specific learned details Recognition: Ability to pick the correct object or even from a lit of choices Tip of the tongue phenomenon

15 III. Retaining Information
Ebbinghaus – nonsense syllables Interference Theory: new/old information conflict with each other

16 III. Retaining Information
Mechanisms of Memory Physical Change in synapse Chemicals increase with learning Making connections faster Long Term Potentiation – strengthening neural signals

17 III. Retaining Information
Unusual Types of Memory Photographic Memory (eidetic) Eye-witness Memory Very defective Who Dunnit? Fox News Eye Witness Discovery Channel 60 Minutes Part 1 Part 2

18 Works Cited 2315_Black_and_White_Cartoon_of_a_Boy_Cramming_for_a_Test_clipart_image.jpg

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