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Presentation on theme: "Memory."— Presentation transcript:

1 Memory

2 We will be focusing on two models of memory.
Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies. We will be focusing on two models of memory.

3 The Multi-Store Model of Memory Atkinson and Shiffrin 1968

4 The Multi-Store Model of Memory Atkinson and Shiffrin 1968
Three step process…. Encoding: The processing of information into the memory system. Storage: The retention of encoded material over time. Retrieval: The process of getting the information out of memory storage.

5 The Multi-Store Model of Memory Atkinson and Shiffrin 1968

6 Sensory Memory A split second holding tank for ALL sensory information. Sperling’s research on Iconic Memory Echoic Memory

7 Short Term Memory The stuff we encode from the sensory goes to STM.
Events are encoded visually, acoustically or semantically. Holds about 7 (plus or minus 2) items for about 6-15 seconds. We recall digits better than letters. Short Term Memory Activity

8 Ways to remember things in STM…so they go to LTM
Chunking: Organizing items into familiar, manageable units. Mnemonic devices or Peg Systems Rehearsal "Mary Very Easily Makes Jam Saturday Unless No Plums."

9 Long Term Memory Unlimited storehouse of information.
Explicit (declarative) memories Implicit (non-declarative) memories

10 Explicit Memories Episodic Memories Semantic Memories

11 Implicit Memories Procedural Memories Conditioned Memories

12 The Multi-Store Model of Memory Atkinson and Shiffrin 1968

13 Forgetting

14 Forgetting Getting a new bus number and forgetting old bus number. Retroactive Interference: new information blocks out old information. Proactive Interference: old information blocks out new information. Calling your new girlfriend by old girlfriends name.

15 Spacing Effect DO NOT CRAM!!!!!!!!!!!! Ebbinghaus’s Forgetting Curve

16 Take out a piece of paper and name all the Presidents…

17 Encoding Information Primacy Effect Recency Effect
Serial Positioning Effect

18 Glanzer and Cunitz 1966 Aim:
To investigate recency effect in free recall. Procedure: This was a laboratory experiment where participants first heard a list of items and them immediately had to recall them in any order.

19 Glanzer and Cunitz 1966 Results:
Participants recalled words from the beginning of the list and end of the list best. The results showed a U shaped curve.

20 Glanzer and Cunitz 1966 If the participants were given a filler task (something to do) right after the last words, the primacy effect disappeared but the recency effect remained. Why? Maybe the words are still active in STM.

21 Glanzer and Cunitz 1966 Evaluation
The study supports the idea of multiple stores (STM and LTM). Controlled lab experiment. Ecological validity issues?

22 Case study example of Multi-Store Model
Amnesia is caused by damage to hippocampus and related networks. MRI scans showed that H.M. had severe damage to hippocampus which is critical to store info in LTM. H.M. could store implicit memories but not explicit memories. This shows that the memory system contains different systems.

23 Multi-Store Model Strengths and Weaknesses
Weakenesses It was the first modern model of memory. The fact that we have multiple stores is supported by research. Most of the newer models have been based of this one. Very simplistic

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