Presentation on theme: "Hazardous Materials Awareness Level"— Presentation transcript:
1 Hazardous Materials Awareness Level Annual RefresherProgramThis is the District 1 Local Emergency Planning Committee Level 1 Refresher Program. Employees who respond to hazardous materials emergencies must be trained to perform their jobs safety and efficiently. Proper training must be completed prior to an employee responding to an emergency situation involving hazardous materials. All employees who may respond to hazardous material emergencies must receive refresher training on an annual basis. The purpose of this course is to provide Level 1 Awareness annual refresher training required by OSHA in 29 CFR
2 FIRST RESPONDER AWARENESS LEVEL – ANNUAL REFRESHER TRAINING INTRODUCTIONEmployees at the awareness level are personnel likely to (1) discover or witness a hazardous material emergency, or (2) may be the first on the scene of an emergency involving hazardous materials. These employees are expected to recognize which hazardous materials are present, protect themselves, call for trained personnel and secure the area. Their most important role is making proper notifications that begin the emergency response sequence. This level of training anticipates a response role which involves no potential for exposure to hazards related to the hazardous materials involved in an incident.The employer is responsible for ensuring the health and safety of responding personnel as well as the protection of the public and the communities served. OSHA 29 CFR and EPA 40 CFR 311 require that emergency response employees be completely trained before they perform at hazardous materials emergencies. Training managers face a significant challenge in ensuring that all responding personnel are fully trained and prepared while working within existing resources and conflicting priorities. An employer must provide annual refresher training which focuses on using available information sources to recognize and identify hazardous materials. The refresher training should be accomplished with approximately four contact hours.This training course has been developed by the Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC) District 1 to provide annual First Responder Awareness Level Refresher Training to emergency responders including law enforcement, fire fighters, EMS, Public Works and others.This course is divided into four parts and should take approximately four (4) hours to complete: Part 1 – 3/4 hour, Part 2 – 1 1/2 hour, Part 3 – 1 1/4 hour and Part 4 – 1/2 hour. All students taking this course should have a current version of the North American Emergency Response Guidebook (NAERG).
3 “Preparation for Response” Part 1“Preparation for Response”This course is divided into four parts. Part 1 “Preparation for Response” reviews the regulatory requirements and response roles for awareness level responders at hazardous materials incidents.
4 “Preparation for Response” Part 1“Preparation for Response”After completing this section, you will understand:Training required by OSHA in 29 CFR and EPA 40 CFR 311.The role of the first responder at the awareness level.The role of the LEPC and SERC in regards to hazardous materialsemergency response planning.
5 Important Acronyms AHJ Authority Having Jurisdiction ALS Advanced Life SupportBLS Basic Life SupportCBRNE Chemical-Biological-Radiological-Nuclear-EnergeticCFR Code of Federal RegulationsDOT Department of TransportationEAP Emergency Action PlanEHS Extremely Hazardous SubstanceEMS Emergency Medical ServiceEOC Emergency Operations CenterEOP Emergency Operations PlanEPA Environmental Protection AgencyEPCRA Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-know ActERG Emergency Response GuideERP Emergency Response PlanFDCA Florida Department of Community AffairsFDEM Florida Division of Emergency ManagementFDEP Florida Department of Environmental ProtectionFDLE Florida Department of Law EnforcementFDOH Florida Department of HealthFDOT Florida Department of TransportationFOG Field Operations Guide
6 Important Acronyms IAP Incident Action Plan IC Incident Commander ICP Incident Command PostICS Incident Command SystemHAZ-MAT Hazardous MaterialsHAZWOPER Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency ResponseNAERG North American Emergency Response GuidebookLEPC Local Emergency Planning CommitteeMSDS Materials Safety Data SheetNFPA National Fire Protection AssociationNGO Non-Governmental OrganizationNIMS National Incident Management SystemNOS Not Otherwise SpecifiedNRP National Response PlanORM Other Regulated MaterialOSHA Occupational Safety and Health AdministrationPPE Personal Protective EquipmentPIO Public Information OfficerRDSTF Regional Domestic Security Task ForceRPC Regional Planning CouncilSARA Superfund Amendment an Reauthorization ActSERC State Emergency Response CommissionSOG Standard Operating GuidelinesSOP Standard Operating ProceduresSWP State Warning PointWMD Weapons of Mass Destruction
7 HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Definitions US DOT - “a hazardous substance or material which has beendetermined to be capable of posing an unreasonable risk tohealth, safety, and property when transported...”US EPA and OSHA - “any substance that can produce anadverse effect on the health or safety of the persons exposed...”.A simple definition - “any substance or material that may hurt orharm the things it contacts if released from its container.”There are many different definitions of hazardous materials. These are some important ones that you should know.
8 EXTREMELY HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE An EHS is a material that:Is listed by EPA in 40 CFR 355.Could present a significant risk to the surrounding community and/or environment if released.Have an extremely high degree of toxicity.Have the potential to migrate off-site of the release and movethroughout the environment presenting an immediate health and safety hazard.Must be reported to the appropriate authorities if stored in quantities exceeding the threshold planning quantities.Extremely hazardous substances are hazardous materials with a high degree of toxicity. SARA Title III – The Emergency Planning and Community Right - To - Know Act (EPCRA) requires the reporting of these materials if stored in quantities exceeding threshold planning quantities.
9 EXTREMELY HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES Some Extremely Hazardous Substances include:ChemicalChlorineAmmonia (anhydrous)Ammonia (aqueous 20% or greater)Sulfur Dioxide (anhydrous)Hydrogen Chloride (anhydrous)Hydrochloric Acid (aqueous 37% or greater)Hydrogen Fluoride (anhydrous)Hydrofluoric Acid (aqueous 50% or greater)Nitric Acid 80% or greater)Anhydrous means “without water.” A complete list of extremely hazardous substances may be obtained from the Florida Department of Community Affairs by calling (800)A complete list of extremely hazardous substances may be obtained from the Florida Department of Community Affairs Risk Management Program at or by calling (800)
10 Hazardous Materials Incident Any unplanned or unexpected release/potential release of ahazardous material. Some unique characteristics of these incidents:Required PPE might not be provided.Responders may not be trained in the use of required PPE.May require operational approaches that differ from normal or routine duties.Non-routine skills and attitudes may be required.Can pose a significant risk to the responder.Always expect the unexpected when responding!!!!First responders are injured in hazardous materials incidents because of complacency and/or the failure to recognize the seriousness of the situation. Always expect the unexpected when responding.When responding to any motor vehicle accident, the responder should park his/her vehicle at least 50 feet upwind (100 feet if any hazardous materials are involved in the accident).
11 Mechanisms of Harm TEAM CPR T Thermal E Etiological A Asphyxiation M Temperature extremes.Heat from fire or heat releasing chemical reactions.Extremes in cold, e.g. liquefied gas and cryogenic liquids.EEtiologicalInjury of harm caused by human disease causing agents.Bacteria and viruses.AAsphyxiationSimple – caused by an oxygen deficient atmosphere.Chemical – can cause changes in the body preventing the proper use of oxygen, e.g. carbon monoxide.MMechanicalPhysical hazardous such as flying debris, uneven ground and/or excessive noise conditions with potential for hearing damage.CChemicalToxic or injurious effects caused by exposure to chemicals, e.g. pesticide poisoning, respiratory injury (e.g. chlorine) and corrosive damage to eyes and skin (e.g. acids and alkalines).PPsychologicalMental stress from fear of the unknown or from witnessing a violent death.RRadiologicalExposure to materials that spontaneously emit radiation.The acronym TEAM CPR explains the seven types of hazards encountered at haz-mat incidents.
12 Public Safety “Duty to Act” Public safety responders have a “Duty to Act”.Your level of involvement is defined by your employer’s Emergency Response Plan (ERP).The actions you are expected to take should be in Standard Operating Guidelines format.NEVER exceed your level of training and protection!The Duty to Act Standard of Care is “the level of competency which is anticipated or mandated during the performance of a service or a duty.” Appropriate actions are required when serving the public in the line of duty. Many laws, regulations and standards influence actions at hazardous materials incidents. Local public safety responders make critical first decisions at haz-mat incidents which affect the outcome of these incidents and can save lives. Only local responders and public employees can provide this service. The employer’s Emergency Response Plan and Standard Operating Procedures define emergency procedures. Responders should NEVER exceed their level of training and equipment levels.
13 Awareness Level GoalsFirst responders at the Awareness Level have four Goals orresponsibilities:Recognition/IdentificationRecognize if an incident involves haz-mats and identify materials involved - if this can be done with no risk to the responder.IsolationIsolate and deny access to the area. Remove uninjured and non-contaminated persons from the area - if it can be done without risk to the responder.ProtectionProtect yourself and others. If properly trained and equipped, this may include use of PPE and evacuation of nearby structures.NotificationNotify the next level of response.
14 EMERGENCY RESPONSE GUIDEBOOK” The ERG is a responder’s tool for success.Every emergency vehicle should have an ERG.Purpose:An aid for identification of the material involved.Outlines basic initial actions.Recommends protective action areas.Serves as an initial incident safety plan.National and international emergencycontact phone numbers.
15 Federal and State Regulations Congress passed the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act (EPCRA) in 1986Florida Legislature passed the Florida Hazardous Materials Emergency Response and Community Right-to-Know ActEPCRA, Section 126 mandated that OSHA develop safety regulations for fist responders.EPCRA requires local communities and facilities to plan and prepare for hazardous materials emergencies.
16 SUPERFUND AND HAZWOPER SARA Title I, Section mandated worker safety regulations for hazardous waste operations and emergency response in 29 CFR and 40 CFR 311.SARA Title III - Emergency Planning and Community Right – to – Know Right - To - Know Act (EPCRA) requires:1. Reporting of hazmat releases to the Florida State Warning Point at (800) or (850) (emergency 24 hour#) and the National Response Center (800)2. State Emergency Response Commissions (SERCs) and LocalEmergency Planning Committees (LEPCs)Training for emergency responders is mandated in 29 CFR and 40 CFR 311. On October 17, 1986, in response to a growing concern for safety around chemical facilities, Congress enacted the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act (EPCRA), also known as Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA). The Act has had a far-reaching influence on issues relating to hazardous materials. EPCRA contains five sections which cover issues associated with the manufacture, use, exposure, transportation, and public education of hazardous materials. It is the mission of the Local Emergency Planning Committees (LEPCs) and State Emergency Response Commission (SERC) to implement EPCRA in the State of Florida and mitigate the effects of a release or spill of hazardous materials. SARA Title III also requires the reporting of hazardous material releases to the Florida State Warning Point at (800) or (904) an emergency 24 hour phone number.
17 Develop SOP’s for facility and emergency personnel Identify facilities and transportation routesDesignate community and facility coordinatorsDevelop timely detection and notification proceduresMaintain regional emergency response equipment and facilities listsLEPCResponsibilitiesMaintainevacuation plansProvide trainingTest and exercise hazmat plans
18 Adopted by EPA in 40 CFR 311 to insure its enforcement in all states. SUPERFUND AND HAZWOPERHAZWOPER- Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Standard (29 CFR )OSHA and EPA’s safety standard developed in accordance with the mandate of EPCRA, Section 126Codified as OSHA 29 CFR and EPA 40 CFRAdopted by EPA in 40 CFR 311 to insure its enforcement in all states.C. HAZWOPER (OSHA 29 CFR ) – Promulgated by OSHA as a result of SARA Title I, Section 126. Private businesses and government agencies must comply with this standard. This regulation was adopted by:· EPA in 40 CFR 311 to insure its enforcement in all states.Florida Dept. of Labor and Employment Security in Chapter 38I-20 FA
19 HAZWOPERApplies to employers & employees exposed/potentially exposed to hazardous substances/waste in the following five operations:Required clean-up operations involving hazardous substances thatare conducted at uncontrolled hazardous waste sites.Corrective actions involving clean-up operations at sites covered under RCRA.Voluntary clean-up operations at sites recognized by federal, state, local, orother governmental body as uncontrolled hazardous waste sites.Operations involving hazardous wastes conducted at treatment, storage, anddisposal facilities regulated by Title 40 CFR 264 and 265, or by agencies underagreement with EPA to implement RCRA regulations.Emergency response operations for releases of, or substantial threats ofrelease of, hazardous substances regardless of the location of the hazard.( applies to five distinct groups of employers and their employees. This includes any employees who are exposed or potentially exposed to hazardous substances -- including hazardous waste -- and who are engaged in one of the following operations:§ Clean-up operations -- required by a governmental body, whether federal, state, local, or other involving hazardous substances -- that are conducted at uncontrolled hazardous waste sites.§ Corrective actions involving clean-up operations at sites covered by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) as amended (42 U.S.C et seq.)§ Voluntary clean-up operations at sites recognized by federal, state, local, or other governmental body as uncontrolled hazardous waste sites;§ Operations involving hazardous wastes that are conducted at treatment, storage, and disposal facilities regulated by Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations Parts 264 and 265 pursuant to RCRA, or by agencies under agreement with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to implement RCRA regulations.Emergency response operations for releases of, or substantial threats of release of, hazardous substances regardless of the location of the hazard.
20 LEVELS OF TRAINING Awareness Operational There are five levels of training required under HAZWOPER:AwarenessPersons likely to witness or discover a haz-mat release must notify appropriate authorities, deny entry into the affected and remain at a safe location until emergency responders reach the scene.OperationalPersons who respond to haz-mat incidents with defensive actions to contain and prevent the release from spreading.Hazardous Materials TechnicianPersons who respond to a haz-mat spill with offensive actions to control the spill or leak.Hazardous Materials SpecialistPersons with specialized knowledge that provide support to the Hazardous Materials Technician.Hazardous Materials Incident CommanderPersons who assume command of the incident and control all operations. They must have Operational Level training and additional training in implementing the employer’s emergency response plan.
21 OPERATIONAL MODES Modes of Operation There are two modes of operation at a haz - mat incident:Defensive mode – Level of training, available equipment, or extent of the incident prohibits further involvement in controlling the incident. Responder may be required to activate remote shut-offs.Offensive mode - Places the responder close to or in contact with the hazardous material or its vapors and gases. These operations are taken only after a thorough risk vs. benefit analysis. They demand the highest level of knowledge since they expose the responder to the greatest risk.
22 OPERATIONAL MODESAwareness and Operational level responders take DEFENSIVE actions.Technicians and Specialists take OFFENSIVE actions.The Incident Commander coordinates the response and is ultimately responsible for safety.
23 PART 1 – REVIEW QUESTIONS Before continuing, take a few minutes to answer the following questions:1. Who is designated as the incident commander at hazardous materials emergencies in your community?2. Who would you notify in your community to activate the hazardous materials emergency response plan?3. What agencies are available in your community to assist with a haz-mat emergency?4. What medical facilities in your area will accept hazardous materials patients?5. Who can order a mandatory evacuationduring a hazardous materials emergency?6. This OSHA regulation was developed toinsure responder safety during haz- matemergencies:A. 49 CFRB. 29 CFRC. 40 CFRD. 29 CFR7. Which mechanisms of harm could most likely be present at an accident involving a gasoline tank truck?A. Thermal, etiological, mechanical, radiologicalB. Thermal, asphyxiation, mechanical, radiologicalC. Thermal, asphyxiation, chemical, psychologicalD. Thermal, mechanical, psychological, radiological8. A hazardous material is defined as a substance or material that:A. Can pose an unreasonable risk to health, safety, and property when transported.B. Can produce an adverse effect on the health or safety of exposed persons.C. When released from its container may hurt or harm the things it contacts.D. All of the above.
24 9. The seven potential hazards found at a hazardous material incident (TEAM CPR) are? A. Toxic, etiological, asphyxiation, mechanical, chronic, psychological, radiological.B. Thermal, etiological, asphyxiation, mechanical, chemical, psychological, radiological.C. Tired, etiological, asphyxiation, man-made, chemical, physical, radiological.D. Thermal, etiological, aspiration, mechanical, chemical, physiological, radiological.10. The two operational response modes are:A. Risk and benefit.B. Defensive and operational.C. Offensive and defensiveD. Safe and Cautious11. The four goals of the awareness level responder are:A. Recognition/identification, isolation, protection and notification.B. Recognition/identification, isolation, personal protection and public awareness.C. Identification, notification, protection and risk assessment.D.Identification, public protection, risk assessment and isolation.12. The five levels of training are:A. Awareness, Operational Specialist, Hazardous Materials Trainee, Hazardous Materials Awareness, Incident Specialist.B. Hazardous Materials Technician, Hazardous Materials Specialist, Hazardous Materials Incident Commander, Operations Level and Primary Technician.C. Awareness, Operations Specialist, Hazardous Materials Technician, Hazardous Materials Inspector, Hazardous Materials Incident Commander.D. Awareness, Operational, Hazardous Materials Technician, Hazardous Materials Specialist, Hazardous Materials Incident Commander.13. Awareness Level responders always operate inthe offensive mode:A. TrueB. False
25 PART 1 – REVIEW QUESTIONS – ANSWERS This depends upon the emergency responder’s ICS procedures. In most cases, the local fire department will have jurisdiction.The communications center (911), dispatch center, local warning pointFire Departments, Law Enforcement Agencies, Emergency Medical Services, Utility Companies, Public Works Departments, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection and Emergency ManagementContact your supervisor for this answerThe on-scene commander(Important - Review the answers to questions 1-5 with your supervisor)6. B7. C8. D9. B10. C11. A12. D13. B
26 the information covered in this unit. This concludes Part 1“Preparation for Response”the information covered in this unit.
27 “Hazard Identification” Part 2“Hazard Identification”After completing this section, the student should be able to identify:· Six clues that indicate the presence of a hazardous material or materials.· The DOT Hazard classes.· A hazardous material by class, name and/or UN/NA ID number.
28 “Hazard Identification” Part 2“Hazard Identification”After completing this section, you should be able to identify:Six clues that indicate the presence of a hazardous material(s).The nine DOT Hazard classes.A hazardous material by class, name and/or UN/NA ID number.
29 RecognitionIsolationProtectionNotificationDecisions made in the first minutes of an incident will have a direct impact on its outcome. Making sound choices early, reduces the impact of the incident and increases life safety for the responder and members of the public.YOUR SAFE RESPONSE IS DEPENDENT UPON YOUR ABILITY TO RECOGNIZE AND IDENTIFY HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
30 Clue # 1 - Occupancy and Location Recognizing Hazardous MaterialsSix Important CluesClue # Occupancy and LocationClue # Container Shape and SizeClue # Placards and labelsClue # Shipping Papers and Facility DocumentsClue # Markings and ColorsClue # The Human Senses
31 Clue # 1 - Occupancy and Location 1. Occupancy refers to the actual structure and its use:Manufacturing facilitiesStorage facilitiesRetail establishmentsResidential2. Location is the general area in which you are located: AgriculturalIndustrial ParksBusiness DistrictsResidential AreasTransportation corridors - rail, air, marine, pipeline, and highway.Illegal Operations (e.g. drug labs).The type of occupancy and location where an incident occurs provides hazard information without putting the responder at risk. Chemical hazards associated with illegal operations vary based on the type of lab. Booby traps are often present. Clues indicating the presence of a drug lab are:Unusual traffic at odd hours.Heavy chemical odors.Fortified.Occupants come outside to smoke.
32 Clue # 1 - Occupancy and Location DANGERMETH LABSAn illegal meth lab makes the illegal drug methamphetamine. All processes use harmful chemicals including explosives, solvents, metals, salts and corrosives. During the drug manufacturing (“cooking”) process, additional toxic compounds and by-products are produced. The fumes, vapors, and spillage associated with cooking can all be toxic. Booby traps can be present. Can be located anywhere activities can be hidden from view such as in: storage units, motel rooms, trailer parks, apartments, houses and car trunks.If you accidentally come across an illegal drug lab,don’t touch anything or stop any process. Leave thesame way you entered and get specialized help.
33 Unusual traffic at all hours Clue # Occupancy and LocationMETH LAB CLUESUnusual traffic at all hoursChemical odorsFortifiedOccupants come outside to smoke
34 Review Pages 18 –19 in your 2004 ERG Clue # Container Shape and SizeLow pressure or non-pressurized ContainersFound in a wide variety of configurations - bags, bottles, and drums. Common highway containers are the MC/306 - DOT/406 (commonly seen carrying gasoline and other petroleum materials), the MC/307 - DOT/ 407 (chemical carriers) and the MC/312 - DOT/412 (corrosive carriers).Pressurized ContainersPressurized containers - made from heavy steel with rounded ends to distribute pressure against the container walls. Containers transported by rail, have valves and contentions, which are enclosed in a protective steel dome. Common highway containers are the MC/331 (liquefied gas) and the MC/338 (cryogenic) carriers.Three are three major classifications of containers – portable, fixed and transportation. The concept of vapor pressure is critical to understanding the construction and hazards of non-pressurized and pressurized containers. Vapor pressure is the absolute pressure exerted by a liquid. All liquids evaporate. The evaporation rate is dependent upon the vapor pressure. As temperature increases, so does vapor pressure.Review Pages 18 –19 in your 2004 ERG
35 Review Pages 16 –17 in your 2004 ERG Clue # 3 - Placards and LabelsLabels - Foundon containersPlacards - Found on vehicles transporting hazardous materials.A vehicle without a placard may be transporting hazardous materials.For commercial carriers, it is estimated that: 50% carry hazardous materials.Placards are required for only 50% of those transporting haz-mats.Only 50% are properly placarded.The US DOT requires the use of labels and placards. Labels are found on containers and placards may be required on vehicles transporting hazardous materials. The absence of a placard does not always indicate that the vehicle is not transporting hazardous materials.Review Pages 16 –17 in your 2004 ERG
36 CLASS 1 - EXPLOSIVES Examples: Propellant explosives. Division Mass Explosion HazardVirtually the entire load could detonate instantaneously given the proper initiating source.Examples: Dynamite, Trinitrotoluene (TNT) and black powder.Division Projectile hazardExplosive with a projectile hazard but not a mass explosion hazard.Examples: Aerial flares, detonating cord.Division Fire hazard, minor blast and/or minor projection hazardExamples: Propellant explosives.Division Minor explosion hazardContains very small amounts of explosive materials with no projection hazard.Examples: Practice ammunition signal cartridges.Division Very insensitive explosivesHas a mass explosion hazard, but requires such a high-powered initiating source. Unlikely to self- initiate even if burning. Formerly called “Blasting Agents”.Examples: Ammonium Nitrate/Fuel Oil Mixtures (ANFO)Classes of hazardous materials are summarized in the “Table of Hazard Classes” in your NAERG and presented on the following slides.Explosives SafetyAll explosives are an extreme hazard if involved in a fire. Trained personnel should fight engine compartment and tire fires aggressively only if the fire does not threaten the storage area. Anticipate that you will not be able to control the fire and start evacuation early. Know your response area and where explosives may be used. There may be no clear indication of their presence as was the case in the Oklahoma City disaster.
37 EXPLOSIVES SAFETYConsider all explosives an extreme hazard when involved in a fire.Engine compartment and tire fires should be fought aggressively by trained personnel if the fire does not make its way to the storage area.3. Always anticipate that you will be unable to get the fire under control and start evacuation early.Know your response area and where explosives may be in use. There may be no outward indication that explosives are present.
38 CLASS 2 – GASES Division 2.1: Flammable Gases A flammable gas has a vapor pressure of 14.7 psi or greater at 68 degrees F and is usually present in the form of a gas. Some flammable gases are liquefied, e.g. propane and butane. The pressure keeps the gas in a liquid form. If released, the liquid will convert to a gas and expand rapidly. Other gases are stored as compressed gases. The container pressures for these gases are generally higher and the expansion ratio is not as great.Examples: Acetylene, HydrogenDivision 2.2: Non-Flammable, Non-Toxic Gases2.2 “Non-Flammable, Non-PoNon-flammable gases can be compressed, liquefied compressed or cryogenic. Cryogenic liquids have three hazards:Extremely cold temperatures (< -150 degrees F).The hazards of the gas itself (inert, displaces oxygen).Very high expansion ratio to 1.Materials in this class do not meet the strict criteria for being either flammable or poisonous. However, they may be toxic to humans and sometimes flammable.Examples: anhydrous ammonia, cryogenic argon, liquid or compressed nitrogen, carbon dioxide.Division 2.3: Toxic Gases2A gas stored in a compressed or compressed liquefied state. These gases have the potential to travel longer distances. If liquefied, it will have higher expansion ratio and will create a large vapor cloud.Examples: chlorine, methyl bromide, hydrogen fluoride, sulfur dioxide.Gases are divided into three divisions. The contents are either compressed or liquefied gases under pressure. Over pressurization can result in a container failure with projectile hazards.
39 CLASS 3 – FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS CLASS 3 – FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDSFlammable liquids release enough vapors at room temperature to support combustion if an ignition source is present. Combustible liquids generally need warming to produce sufficient vapors to support combustion. Many of these materials contain toxicological hazards as well, such as the benzene found in gasoline.Flammable liquids must be grounded and bonded to prevent fires and/or explosions
40 CLASS 4 – FLAMMABLE SOLIDS Division 4.1 – Flammable Solids materials Wetted explosives – Have enough water, alcohol or plasticizer content to suppress explosive properties.Self reactive materials – Can react with the release of heat if exposed to high temperatures during transport, friction or if contaminated.Readily combustible – can ignite with frictionExamples: Sulfur, magnesium, nitrocelluloseDivision Spontaneously Combustible materialsPyrophoric - Will ignite in less than 5 minutes upon contact with air.Self Heating - Can slowly self heat upon contact with air.Examples: phosphorus, charcoal briquettesDivision 4.3 – Dangerous When Wet / Water Reactive Substances materialsExamples: Lithium, sodium
41 OXIDIZERS AND ORGANIC PEROXIDES CLASS 5OXIDIZERS AND ORGANIC PEROXIDESDivision OxidizersThose materials that may cause or enhance the combustion of other materials by releasing oxygen.Examples: ammonium nitrate, pool chemicals like calcium hypochlorite.Division 5.2 – Organic PeroxidesOrganic peroxides have a bivalent -O-O- structure in the compound. This means there is a lot of oxygen in the molecule. Attached to each end of the molecule is an organic compound that may have varying combustible characteristics. Therefore, a fuel is present with plenty of available oxygen. Organic peroxides can be VERY unstable and can detonate depending on their type.Examples: benzoyl peroxide, methyl ethyl ketone peroxide, peroxyacetic acid.The most important functions of the awareness level responder are to isolate the area, keep people away and prevent ignition by removing ignition sources. Never allow smoking, keep vehicles away and do not use signal flares. Organic peroxides already have the fuel and oxygen within their molecules. All that is required is energy. Depending upon the type of organic peroxide, warming the material up to room temperature could provide the necessary energy.
42 POISONOUS AND INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES CLASS 6POISONOUS AND INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCESDivision Poisonous MaterialsMaterials other than gases that are poisonous/presumed poisonous to humans. Includes severely irritating materials.Examples: “tear gas”, hydrocyanic acid, carbon tetrachlorideDivision Infectious SubstancesAKA Etiological.Viable microorganism or its toxin, which can cause disease in humans or animals.Includes bacteria, viruses and their toxins.Human blood and many body fluids must be considered to be infectious. Emergency responders must be trained in universal precautions and infection control.Examples: anthrax, botulism, tetanus.
43 RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS CLASS 7RADIOACTIVE MATERIALSRadioactive materials are materials that emit ionizing radiation with an activity of greater than micro curies per gram. If contamination is avoided, exposure stops when you get away from the material.Time: Dose is directly proportional to duration of exposure.Distance: Dose is indirectly proportional to the square of the distance from the source.Shielding: Ionizing radiation is absorbed in varying amounts by materials. The greater mass placed between the source and the responder, the less the exposure.Further classified as Radioactive I, II and III with III having the highest specific activity. Packaged in either type B or A containers. Both types of containers are designed to withstand impacts and damages of varying magnitudes. Type A packaging is the strongest.
44 CLASS 8 CORROSIVE MATERIALS These materials can cause irreversible damage to human tissue. Their fumes or vapors are also very hazardous.Examples: nitric acid, sodium hydroxide (caustic soda or lye), hydrochloric acid.Corrosive materials are measured on the pH Scale:
45 MISCELLANEOUS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS CLASS 9MISCELLANEOUS HAZARDOUS MATERIALSMiscellaneous hazardous materials which:Can cause extreme annoyance or discomfort to flight crew membersduring air transport, orAre not classified into one of the other eight categories but are subjectto DOT transportation regulations.Examples: molten sulfur, PCBs (poly chlorinated biphenols), hazardous wastes.
46 THE 1000 POUND RULEA placard is not required when less than 1000 pounds of a particular hazard class is loaded at one location. Exceptions to this rule include some explosives, high-level radioactive materials, poisonous gases, and flammable solids which are dangerous when wet.THE 1000 POUND RULE - A placard is not required when less than 1000 pounds of a particular hazard class is loaded at one location. Exceptions to this rule include some explosives, high-level radioactive materials, poisonous gases, and flammable solids which are dangerous when wet.
47 EPA requires the following labeling on pesticide containers: Pesticide LabelsEPA requires the following labeling on pesticide containers:Product NameActive IngredientsSignal Word – Caution, Warning, Danger
48 Clue # 4 - Shipping Papers and Facility Documents MODENAMELOCATIONNOTESHighwayBill of lading, freight bill or manifestCab of vehicleMust be within arms reach of driver and on driver’s seat or door pocket when un-attended.RailConsist List or WaybillWith conductor or engineerProvides an itemized listing of each car within the train.WaterDangerous Cargo ManifestWheelhouse of vessel or in document tube or box on a bargeAirAirbillCockpit and attached to outside of packagesIn the possession of the pilot.PipelinePipeline MarkersWhere pipeline crosses another mode of transportationIndicates owner’s name and 24 hour emergency contact information. Note: contents of many pipelines change regularly.Shipping papers must itemize all hazardous materials present during any mode of transport. As explained in the following table, location and names of the shipping papers depends upon the mode of transportation:
49 Other Limits Recommended Clue # 4 - Shipping Papers and Facility Documents Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)Employers must maintain MSDS for all hazardous substances, stored, manufactured orused in the workplace. MSDS has 8 basic sections:Section I – ManufacturerManufacturer's NameEmergency Telephone NumberAddress (Number, Street, City, State, and ZIP Code)Telephone Number for InformationDate PreparedSignature of Preparer (optional)Section II - Hazardous Ingredients/Identity InformationEmployers must maintain MSDS for all hazardous substances, stored, manufactured or used in the work place. MSDS design is guided by OSHA Form 20 and must contain:Product IdentityHazardous IngredientsPhysical/chemical propertiesHealth hazardsFire and explosion hazardsReactivity hazardsHazardous Components (Specific Chemical Identity; Common Name(s)OSHA PELACGIH TLVOther Limits Recommended%(optional)
50 Section III - Physical/Chemical Characteristics Boiling PointSpecific Gravity (H2O = 1)Vapor Pressure (mm Hg.)Melting PointVapor Density (AIR = 1)Evaporation Rate (Butyl Acetate = 1)Solubility in WaterAppearance and OdorSection IV - Fire and Explosion Hazard DataFlash Point (Method Used)Flammable LimitsLELUELExtinguishing MediaSpecial Fire Fighting ProceduresUnusual Fire and Explosion Hazards
51 Section VI - Health Hazard Data Section V - Reactivity DataStabilityUnstableConditions to AvoidStableIncompatibility (Materials to Avoid)Hazardous Decomposition or ByproductsHazardous PolymerizationMay OccurConditions to Avoid Will Not OccurSection VI - Health Hazard DataRoute(s) of Entry:Inhalation?Skin?Ingestion?Health Hazards (Acute and Chronic)Carcinogenicity:NTP?IARC Monographs?OSHA Regulated?Signs and Symptoms of ExposureMedical Conditions Generally Aggravated by ExposureEmergency and First Aid Procedures
52 Section VII - Precautions for Safe Handling and Use Steps to Be Taken in Case Material is Released or SpilledWaste Disposal MethodPrecautions to Be taken in Handling and StoringOther PrecautionsSection VIII - Control MeasuresRespiratory Protection (Specify Type)VentilationLocal ExhaustSpecialMechanical (General)OtherProtective GlovesEye ProtectionOther Protective Clothing or EquipmentWork/Hygienic Practices
53 http://www.ilpi.com/msds/ref/index.html MSDS TERMINOLOGY A glossary of terms used in the MSDScan be found at:
54 More Facility Documents Facility Emergency Response Plans (ERP)Facilities storing EHS over a certain quantity must prepare an ERP. Identifies materials stored onsite and procedures to follow in an emergency.Facility Emergency Action Plans (EAP) Identifies emergency procedures. May identify hazardous materials that are present. Usually calls for employees to evacuate rather than respond to an emergency.Facility Contingency PlanRequired for large generators of hazardous waste. Must minimize hazards to human health or the environment from fires, explosions, or any unplanned sudden or non-sudden release of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents to the air, soil, or surface water.
55 Clue # 5 - Markings and Colors 1. Container colors: Many organizations have established standardized color coding forcontainers such as the Compressed Gas Association.Compliance is not mandatoryColors may vary depending on the supplierColors are not uniform statewide2. UN/NA Identification Number - 4 digit number established by DOT.Found in three locations during transport:Shipping papersOn the vehicle placardSometimes on the MSDSUN/NA number can be cross-referenced in the yellow - bordered pages ofthe NAERG.Container Colors - Many organizations have established standardized, voluntary color-coding for containers. An example is the Compressed Gas Association. Container colors vary depending upon thesupplier.Other Markings - Company names and other unique markings may provide clues to the presence of hazardous materials. Familiarize yourself with your community and your local hazardous materials suppliers and users.Many UN/NA numbers have numerous materials listed. For example, “Combustible Liquids” not otherwise specified is listed for 1993.
56 Clue # 5 - Markings and Colors NFPA 704 DiamondThe National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has developed a standardized facility marking system commonly called the “704” system.
57 Clue # 5 - Markings and Colors The HMIS labelFound on containers of hazardous materials. Similar to the NFPA label for the blue, yellow and reactivity sections, but white area identifies required PPE.Clue # 5 - Markings and ColorsHealthFlammabilityReactivityPPEABCDEFSafety glassesSafety glasses and glovesSafety glasses, gloves, protective apronFace shield, gloves, protective apronSafety glasses, gloves, dust respiratorSafety glasses, gloves, protective dust respiratorGHIJKLSafety glasses, gloves, vapor respiratorSplash goggles, gloves, protective apron and vapor respiratorSafety glasses, gloves, dust respirator, vapor respiratorSplash goggles, gloves, protective apron dust respirator and vapor respiratorAir line mask or hood, gloves, full suit and bootsAsk your supervisor or safety specialist for helpThis label is found on containers of hazardous materials. It is similar to the NFPA label for the blue, yellow and reactivity sections. However, the white area identifies PPE that should be worn when working with the material.
58 Clue # 5 - Markings and Colors Military Markings Familiarize yourself with the specialized hazards you may encounter atmilitary facilities.
59 Clue # 6 - The Human Senses Never use touch, taste or smell to identify hazardous materials. High odor thresholds and/or olfactory fatigue can make your sense of smell unreliable. Many hazardous materials do not have an odor.Odor Threshold - The lowest concentration at which a normal personshould be able to smell a material.Olfactory Fatigue – The ability to detect an odor decreases withcontinued exposure to the odor.The use of the human senses can sometimes increase exposure risk for an emergency responder. Never use touch, taste or smell to identify hazardous materials. High odor thresholds and/or olfactory fatigue reduce the reliability of your sense of smell unreliable. Also, many hazardous materials do not have an odor. However, the responder should be aware of unusual odors and should not discount them.The “odor threshold” is the concentration at which a normal person should be able to smell a material. Some materials have odor thresholds that are higher than the level at which over exposure occurs. In this case, the person could be exposed to an unsafe concentration before they could actually smell it. Some people are genetically unable to detect certain odors. For example, 15% of the population cannot smell cyanide. Some materials (e.g. hydrogen sulfide) can deaden the sense of smell after one or two breaths at low concentrations causing “olfactory fatigue.” A person can initially smell a material but then the odor disappears when in fact the concentration is increasing.
60 Clue # 6 - The Human Senses Low Risk Senses: Sight and SoundHigh Risk Senses: Smell, Touch and TasteUse sight and hearing to detect pressure releases, liquids, gas leaks/vapor clouds, victims and chemical reactions and/or explosions.
61 The presence of victims Clue # 6 - The Human SensesWith your sight, you can detect from a safe distance:Smoke and FireChemical ReactionsVapor cloudsThe presence of victimsWith your hearing, you can identify unusual sounds and interview witnesses for more clues.Corrosive actions
62 “Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion” BLEVE“Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion”An explosive release of expanding vapor and boiling liquid following the catastrophic failure of a pressure vessel holding a liquefied gas such as propane or LPG. A BLEVE is the worst possible outcome when a propane or LPG tank is exposed to fire. BLEVE hazards include fireballs, blast, projectiles and possible toxic clouds or vapor cloud explosions.
63 BLEVE BLEVE warning signs: Pinging sound from the metal shell Discoloration of the container (normally cherry red)Flaking of small metal piecesBubble or bulge on the containerSteam from the tank surfaceShrill sound from the pressure relief valveEspecially if increasing with passage of timeTear in container surface
64 Operational Decisions Methods of IdentificationCASNumberThe Chemical Abstract Service registers and assigns known chemical compounds a CAS number. This number is usually found on the MSDS for the product and is of little value to the Awareness Level Responder.Shipping PapersShipping papers list the common name of the hazardous material and the UN/NA ID number. This name or number can be used to find the proper guide page in the DOT ERG. Awareness Level Responders should never place themselves at risk to obtain shipping papers.MSDSThe product name is listed in the first section. Hazardous ingredients may be listed by common name in the “Hazardous Ingredients Section.” There may be multiple hazardous ingredients.Facility Pre-PlansIf required, the Employer Emergency Response Plan or LEPC Plan identifies materials present at fixed facilities.Employees/BystandersEmployees, vehicle drivers and bystanders may be able to identify the product involved.Operational DecisionsAwareness level responders can make safety decisions without knowing the specific name of a material. Awareness level responders should never allow the lack of the material name to slow their decision making process. The product’s hazard class enables you to make the right decision.Once recognized and classified, the next step is to identify the hazardous material. Identification is needed to fully assess the problem. However, awareness level responders should never put themselves at risk in order to identify a material. Safety decisions can be made without knowing the actual identity of the material.
65 Hazardous Materials – Six Clues Occupancy and Location REVIEWHazardous Materials – Six CluesOccupancy and LocationContainer Shape and SizePlacards and LabelsShipping Papers and Facility DocumentsMarkings and ColorsThe Human Senses
66 PART 2 – REVIEW QUESTIONS Before continuing, take a few minutes to answer the following questions:Six important clues to recognizing hazardousmaterials are:A. Occupancy and Location, Container Shape and Size, Placard and Labels, Shipping Papers and Facility Documents, Markings and Colors and the Human Senses.B. Occupancy and Location, Container Shape and Size, MSDS, Shipping Papers, Markings and Colors and the Human Senses.C. Occupancy and Location, Electronic monitoring equipment, MSDS, Shipping Papers, Markings and Colors and the Human Senses.D. Occupancy and Location, the NAERG, MSDS, Shipping Papers, Markings and Colors and the Human Senses.2. The UN/NA number can be found on:A. On shipping papersB. On the placardC. On the orange rectangular panelD. All of the above3. The 1000 Pound Rule means a placard is not required when less than 500 pounds of a particular hazard class is loaded at one location.A. TrueB. FalseThe correct interpretation of thisNFPA placard would be:A. Severe health hazard, extreme fire hazard, minimal reactivity hazard and water reactive.B. Moderate health hazard, extreme fire hazard, minimal reactivity hazard and water reactive.C. Severe health hazard, extreme fire hazard, moderate reactivity hazard and water reactive.D. None of the above.
67 5. You can use your sight to detect: A. Smoke and fire, chemical reactions, vapor clouds, victims, and good weather conditions.B. Smoke and fire, chemical reactions, vapor clouds, victims, and corrosive actions.C. Smoke and fire, chemical reactions, vapor clouds, victims, corrosive actions, and unsafe responders.D. Co-workers, chemical reactions, vapor clouds, victims, corrosive actions, and witnesses.6. The high risk senses are:A. Sight, touch and taste.B. Smell, touch and taste.C. Hearing, touch and tasteD. Smell, sight and hearing7. Pressurized containers have rounded ends and aremade of heavy steel.A. TrueB. False8. Section 2 of the MSDS gives you information concerning hazardous ingredients and chemical identity.9. This placard means:A. Virtually the entire load could detonate instantaneously if given the proper initiating source.Explosive with a projectile hazard butnot a mass explosion hazard.C. Contains very small amounts of explosive materials with no projection hazard.10. This placard means:A. A flammable gas is present.B. A flammable liquid is present.C. A flammable solid is present.
68 11. In a highway incident involving a tanker truck, shipping papers are generally found in the cab of the truck.A. TrueB. False12. In a railroad accident, shipping papers can usually be found in the caboose or last car of the train.13. Olfactory Fatigue occurs when the ability to detect an odor decreases with continued exposure to the odor.A. TrueB. False
69 PART 2 – REVIEW QUESTIONS – ANSWERS 2. D3. B4. C5. B6. BAB
70 “Hazard Identification” This concludes Part 2“Hazard Identification”
72 Part 3“Taking Control”After completing this section, you will be able to identify actions that protect responders and civilians during hazardous materials incidents such as:Actions needed to properly isolate the incident.Procedures necessary to activate an Emergency Response Plan.Proper protective actions to take in accordance with the NAERG.
73 The North American Emergency Response Guidebook (NAERG) U.S. DOT, Transport Canada and the Secretary of Communications & Transport (Mexico) developed the NAERG. It should be carried in every emergency response vehicle in North America. The NAERG is:Updated every 3 years.Duplicated and distributed free of charge by US DOT.Distributed by your county’s Emergency Managementoffice and your Local Emergency Planning Committee(LEPC).
74 The North American Emergency Response Guidebook (NAERG) Assists responders in making initial decisions at a hazardousmaterials emergencies.Users must know how to use and interpret the informationprovided.Designed for use in transportation emergencies (highway and rail).May have some use at fixed facility incidents.Instructions are based on the involvement of a single notmultiple chemicals.
75 Using the NAERG Yellow The NAERG is divided into four basic sections: bordered pages provide an index list of dangerous goods in numerical order by UN/NA ID number.Bluebordered pages contain a list of dangerous goods in alphabetical order by material name. If you know the chemical name, the UN/NA number can be cross-referenced in the blue bordered pages of the NAERG.Orangebordered pages provide safety guidelines.Greenbordered pages provide information on initial isolation and protective action distances, and lists TIH materials including certain chemical warfare agents and water reactive materials which produce toxic gases upon contact with water.TIH materials – liquid or gases so toxic to humans as to pose a hazard to health during transportation
76 Using the NAERGTo effectively use the NAERG, you must first recognize that you are dealing with a hazardous material. The hazardous material can be identified finding:Look up the Guide number using one of the following:The yellow bordered numerical index.The blue bordered alphabetical index.The four digit ID number a placard or orange panel.The four digit ID number (after UN/NA) on a shippingdocument or package.The name of the material on a shipping document or package.
77 Using the NAERGIf you cannot identify the material, match the placard or label:If you cannot find a name or an ID number, turn to the “Table of Placards” located on pages and use the guide page number indicated for the particular placard or DOT label.NOTE: these placards are also located in Part 2 of the course materials.
78 Using the NAERGA “P” next to the guide page in the yellow or blue bordered pages, indicates the material can undergo violent polymerization (heat/explosion).If the index entry is highlighted, it is a TIH* or a Dangerous Water Reactive material.“P”*TIH – a liquid of gas so toxic to humans as to pose a health hazard during transportation.
79 HAZARDOUS POLYMERIZATION A chemical reaction in which one or more small molecules combine to form larger molecules. A hazardous polymerization takes place at a rate that releases large amounts of energy that can cause fires or explosions or burst containers. Materials that can polymerize usually contain inhibitors that can delay the reactions.
80 Using the NAERGIf you cannot find a chemical name or an ID number, and you believe a hazardous material is involved, turn to Guide Page 111 in the “Guides” section (orange bordered pages) of the NAERG for further help.
81 Prevent Secondary Contamination Review page 6 of your NAERG BASIC PROTECTIVE ACTIONS (YIPP)Your Approach* Always approach an incident from upwind and uphill.* If you cannot approach from upwind and uphill, upwind always takes priority.* If you cannot approach from upwind, then stay even further away.* Look for all hazards.* Stay back 500 ft. & use binoculars to identify labeling. Look for all hazards.* Relay hazards and safety information to others.Isolatethe areaWithout entering the area:* Keep people away including unprotected responders.* Keep everyone upwind.* Stay out of low-lying areas.Prevent Direct Contamination* Avoid direct contact with the product, its gases, vapors and/or smoke from any fire.Prevent Secondary Contamination* Contamination of persons or equipment who come in contact with items or persons who have not been properly decontaminated.* Never allow anyone or anything to leave the area without proper decontamination. Qualified individuals and properly protected personnel must perform the evaluation.Review page 6 of your NAERG
82 Using the “ Guides ” Section of the NAERG Potential HazardsFire/ Explosion HazardsPay heed to adjectives such as “Highly” or “Extremely.”Note the bold “P” in the fire and explosion hazard area of guide 119. These materials can polymerize.Note the statement “Containers may explode when heated.”Health HazardsToxic materials can enter the body through:InhalationSkin / eye contact and absorptionIngestionInjection
83 Using the “ Guides ” Section of the NAERG Using the of the NAERG Public SafetyNotificationActivate your emergency response plan and summon help. Use theEmergency contact number on the MSDS or shipping papers and/orcontact CHEMTREC ( ) for additional information.Notify the State Warning Point (800) Advise other responders of:Incident conditionsMaterial(s) involved and amountSafe approach informationGuide page you are usingNeeded resourcesActions being takenProtectiveClothingThe minimum level of protective clothing at hazardous materials emergencies is structural firefighter protective clothing with positive pressure breathing apparatus. Frequently, this protection is not adequate.Awareness level responders are not provided with chemical protective clothing. Street uniforms DO NOT provide protection against chemical hazards.The user must be properly trained in the use of chemical protective clothing.The “guide” page indicates whether firefighter protective clothing will provide limited protection or if specialized chemical protection is required.
84 Using the “ Guides ” Section of the NAERG of the NAERG Public SafetyEVACUTIONIsolate the immediate area and evacuate or otherwise protect persons downwind or in a radius around the incident.Spill: If this entry is highlighted, you need to consult the green-bordered pages of the NAERG for spill protective distances.Fire: Fire evacuation distances are always expressed as a radius because of the potential for an explosion or BLEVE.Protective Action Zones - Two options:Evacuate if the incident is going to be of long duration, or if there is a potential for massive fire or explosion. Methods include: door to door, Emergency Alert System, loud speakers. Provide evacuation route info & shelter/mass care info if known, & identify and notify a collection point.Protect in place: If there is no hazard of a massive fire or explosion or it is impractical to evacuate (population density, hospitals) or if evacuation could expose persons to greater hazards.Small Spill Vs. Large SpillDaytime Vs. Nighttime
85 Using the “ Guides ” Section of the NAERG of t Emergency ResponseFireIf a fire involves a haz-mat, the fire is a hazardous material incident.Only properly trained and protected persons should attempt to fight a fire that directly involves hazardous materials.Operation level personnel can provide defensive fire attack if they have the necessary protection and training.Technician level personnel must conduct offensive fire attack.Awareness level responders should not attempt to fight a hazardous materials fire.Spill or LeakOperational level personnel can perform spill control if they are properly protected and avoid direct contact with the product.Technician level responders perform leak control.Operational level responders can activate remote shut-offs.Personnel engaging in these activities must be properly trained and protected.
86 Using the “ Guides ” Section of the NAERG of t Emergency ResponseFirst AidThis section of the NAERG outlines the basic first aid principles for victims of exposure.Awareness level responders should not come in direct contact with persons who present a significant risk of secondary contamination.Contaminated, conscious victims should be encouraged to move to an isolated area and await medical assistance by persons with proper training and protection.If victims are unconscious as a result of exposure to the hazardous materials, rescue by untrained and unprotected personnel should not be attempted.
87 Using the NAERGIf the chemical is shaded in the yellow or blue pages, look for the ID number and chemical name in the “Table of Initial Isolation and Protective Action Distances” (green bordered pages) and begin IMMEDIATE protective actions.
88 Incident Control Zones WindIncidentCommand area,Support functionsEntry CorridorDecontaminationSafeRefugeHOTWARMCOLDEstablish work zones:Hot ZoneWork area where chemical hazards existSeparate with red barrier tapeDo not enter w/o appropriate PPEWarm ZoneWork site area where decontamination occursSemi-contaminated areaCold ZoneSeparate with yellow barrier tapeNo chemical PPE required
89 Isolate and Restrict Access to Incident SceneConsider:Roadblocks and traffic re-routingPerimeter controlPersonnel accountability system
90 Review page 298 of your NAERG Protective Action OptionsShelter in-placeShort duration incidentsGreater hazard to attempt to moveImpractical to evacuateEvacuationPotential for massive fire or explosionLong duration incidentsSeek shelter inside a buildingTurn off HVACClose all windows and doorsSeal all openingsStay inside until notified to leaveReview page 298 of your NAERG
91 Incident Command System (ICS) Initiate ICS to identify those authorized to enter the sceneSenior response official/Qualified response official implements ICSReview ICS specified in ERP & SOGsMust appoint safety officerNIMS and HAZWOPER require ICSTo be IC requires minimum of Operations Level and IC training. Fire Chief, Police officer or county EM may not have the required training.Evaluate priorities for incident, life, property, environment (LIPE)LIFE: Health & well-being, acute & chronic health hazardsPROPERTY: Immediate destruction, fire, explosion, long term contaminationINCIDENT: Establish ICS, hazard zones & take proper protective actionsENVIRONMENT: Air, water, land pollution, death/injury to wildlife
92 Weapons of Mass Destruction C- ChemicalB- BiologicalR- RadiologicalN- NuclearE- Explosives
93 Terrorist Activity – Target Locations Public assembly areas and mass transit systems, i.e. subways, busesGovernment buildings and historic or symbolic sitesAreas of significant economic impact, i.e. regional shopping centersReligious or controversial organizationsIndustrial and military facilitiesFirst Responders may intentionally be targeted to increase the impact of the attack.
94 Targets in Our Area Theme Parks NASA Nuclear Power Plants Military BasesTheme ParksNASA
95 TERRORISM A Chemical Release – Important Clues: Rapid on-set of medical signs and symptomsDead animals and insectsChemical ResidueUnusual odors and/or residueDiscolored trees or foliageSkin, eye and/or airway irritationIndications of a hazmat release – e.g. plume or cloud
96 Review pages 354 - 356 of your NAERG TERRORISMA Biological Release – Important Clues:Gradual on-set of medical signs & symptomsNo obvious odor and/or residueHospitals are reporting mass casualties withthe same signs and symptomsWidespread migration of illnessInfected individuals transmitting to othersReview pages of your NAERG
97 Specific Actions for Suspected Terrorist IncidentsIf a terrorism or other criminal activity is suspected,consider all of the followingTake self protective actionsBe alert to secondary devicesCommunicate suspicions during the notification processEstablish work control zones and access control pointsDocument the initial observationsAttempt to preserve evidence
98 REVIEW The NAERG Guidebook contains: Yellow Blue Orange Green Guidelines for initial safety and protection actions.Basic response instructions.A numerical and an alphabetical index.Guide pages that can be selected by using the:4 digit UN/NA ID numberThe Material nameA Placard comparisonYellowbordered pages provide an index list of dangerous goods in numerical order by UN/NA ID number.Bluebordered pages contain a list of dangerous goods in alphabetical order by material name.Orangebordered pages provide safety guidelines.Greenbordered pages provide information on initial isolation and protective action distances.
99 PART 3 – REVIEW QUESTIONS Before continuing, take a few minutes to answer the following questions:1. The NAERG:A. Was developed by U.S. DOT, Transport Asia and theSecretary of Communications & Transport (Mexico).B. Should be carried in every emergency response vehicle inNorth America.C. Is duplicated and distributed for a small fee by US DOT.D. Assists responders in making initial decisions at ahazardous materials emergency.E. B and DIn the NAERG, the green bordered pages contain:A. The “Table of initial isolation and Protective ActionDistances.”B. An alphabetical listing of hazardous materials.C. The emergency response “Guides.”D. A list of DOT placards.In the NAERG, the blue bordered pages contain:4. In the NAERG, the yellow bordered pages contain:A. The “Table of initial isolation and Protective ActionB. The emergency response “Guides.”An listing of hazardous materials by UN/NA ID #.A list of DOT placards.
100 5. In the NAERG, the orange bordered pages contain:A. The “Table of initial isolation and Protective ActionDistances.”B. An alphabetical listing of hazardous materials.C. Safety GuidelinesD. A list of DOT placards.If you know the chemical name, the UN/NA number can be cross-referenced in the blue bordered pages of the NAERG:A. TrueB. FalseStreet uniforms provide fairly good protectionagainst chemical hazards.A. TrueB. FalseThe minimum level of protective clothing at hazardous materials emergencies is structural firefighter protective clothing with a positive pressure breathing apparatus.TrueFalse
101 PART 3 – REVIEW QUESTIONS – ANSWERS 2. B3. B4. C5. C6. ABA
102 This concludes Part 3“Taking Control”Please take a few minutes to review the information covered in this unit.
104 After completing this section, you should be able to identify: Part 4“Termination”After completing this section, you should be able to identify:Three actions to take when terminating an incident.Information to gather during an incident debriefing.
105 Termination Procedures Are required by OSHAto identify operational weaknesses and to improveresponse and safetyConveys important information to the emergency respondersInsures exposures are documentedInsures improvements in future responsesOSHA requires proper incident termination in order to identify operational weaknesses and to improve response and safety. The termination process must be documented and needs for post exposure medical evaluations should be identified.
106 On-Scene Debriefing Process Relays important information to responders concerning: Hazardous material exposure(s).Signs and symptoms of over-exposure.Who to contact if symptoms of over exposure areexperienced.T The responder must immediately seek medical attention if anexposure over the PEL has occurred.If an exposure has exceeded the permissible exposure limit(s), responders are sent for an immediate medical evaluation. The after incident analysis identifies operational strong points and weaknesses. Methods for correcting weaknesses are identified and the employer develops a Corrective Action Plan. If required, training issues are addressed.
107 Incident Critique An incident critique should: After action analysis: An incident critique should:occur immediately after the incident.involve all responders.reinforce the strong points.expose any weaknesses.identify any needed corrective actions.After action analysis:an administrative function.implementation schedule for corrective actions isdeveloped.Method for tracking implementation and effectivenessof changes is developed.The after action analysis is an administrative function. Information obtained from the critique is compiled and recommendations for improvement are made. An implementation schedule for corrective actions and a method for tracking the implementation and effectiveness of the changes is developed.
108 PART 4 – REVIEW QUESTIONS Before continuing, take a few minutes to answer the following questions:1. The following statement(s) are true regardingtermination procedures:A. Are required by OSHA.B. Convey important information to accident victimsC. Insure improvements in future responsesD. A and CA Hazard Communication briefing is held afterevery incident and responder(s) are advised about:A. Hazardous material(s) exposures.B. Signs and symptoms of over exposure.C. Procedures to follow if signs and symptoms occur.D. All of the above.The following statement(s) are true regarding an incident critique:A. It should occur within two weeks after the incident.B. It should reinforce the strong and weak points.C. It should involve only operational level responders.D. It should identify any needed corrective actions.E. B and DThe after incident analysis identifies:A. Operational strong points.B. Operational weaknesses.C. Methods for correcting weaknesses
109 PART 4 – REVIEW QUESTIONS – ANSWERS 1. D2. D3. E4. D
110 This concludes Part 4“Termination”Please take a few minutes to review the information covered in this unit.
111 FINAL EXAMTo complete this training course and receive your certificate of completion, you must take and pass a proctored exam. A schedule of exam dates, times and locations is listed below:DateTimeLocationPlease contact Sherry Starling at (850) x 247 orto register for an exam.
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