2 Overview What and Why of Gender Analysis Gender Analysis Frameworks and Tools
3 Learning ObjectivesAt the end of this session, it is expected that participants :Will develop a basic understanding of gender analysis and its benefitsWill become familiar with gender analytical tools, approaches and data
4 Some basics about Gender Gender is a social construction depending upon time and cultureA difference exists between women and men in the area of division of labour, and access and control over resourcesThere is a global gender inequality in favour of menMen’s work = paid = considered more importantWomen’s work = unpaid= considered less importantDue to gender discrimination women do not get their fair share of opportunities and benefits
5 Can development initiatives fail because they do not consider gender ?
6 Have a look at this development intervention (source: UNDP) We have brought Food for everyone, Go get from the tree.
7 Answer these Q. based on the Picture Do you think this is Equal Opportunity for all animals?Does the same thing happen in development projects?Who will be able to get the Food?What should be done instead?
8 Implicit Assumptions of Development Programs Assumptions during Project design and implementation:Men are the head of household -> Project activities for economic benefits should focus menHousework or child care is not much efforts -> Women can handle outside work with house work, women’s priorities go unnoticedWomen do care work -> Interventions related to family health should focus womenDevelopment benefits will automatically reach women
9 What is Gender Analysis Gender analysis is a systematic tool to examine social and economic differences between women and menIt is a is a toolto better understandthe different social,economic, culturaland political realitiesof women and men, girls and boys.
10 Meaning of Gender Analysis (contd…) Methodology for collecting and processing information about genderIdentify roles, needs, opportunities of women AND menRequires information -- quantitative and qualitative
11 Meaning of Gender Analysis(Contd…) Explores women’s and men’s different realities and expectationsConsiders effects of interventionsEnsures benefits and resources areeffectively and equitably targeted
12 gender neutral policies? May affect women and men differently because of differences between themMay reinforce existing inequalitiesSLIDE CONTENT: Before we get into the specifics on how to conduct a gender analysis, there are a few myths we must dispel. One such myth is that there isn’t a need for gender analysis because policies and programs should be gender neutral. While that sounds good at first thought, if you dig a little deeper, you’ll uncover the problem with this approach.Policies which appear gender neutral may actually affect women and men differently because there are significant differences in the lives of women and men in most areas such as health and education.These differences may cause apparently “gender neutral” policies to impact women and men differently and reinforce existing inequalities.
13 Women ≠ Homogenous Cultures Class Ethnicity Income Education Age Gender roles and behaviours vary across:CulturesClassEthnicityIncomeEducationAgeGender attributes change over timeSLIDE CONTENT: It is important to keep in mind that in conducting a gender analysis, you need to focus not only on the differences between men and women, but also on the differences between different groups of women and men. We know that gender roles and learned behaviors of men and women vary across cultures, class, ethnicity, income, education and age, among other statuses.Given this reality, we can’t treat women as a homogenous group. We also need to keep in mind that gender attributes change over time.TRAINER NOTE: To reinforce this idea, ask participants to provide examples of differences among women in their country. How are/were the gender roles their mothers played different from their own?
14 Goals of Gender Analysis Better understand our community (women, men, girls and boys)Get better results from development programs
15 What Gender Analysis Will Provide? Analysis of the Division of Labour and Access and Control of ResourcesUnderstanding of gender relations and their Implications for development policy and implementationSpecific gender disaggregated statisticsA Review of Women’s Priorities, Women’s Practical Needs and Strategic Interest and ways to address themA Review of Social, Economic, Political Power DynamicsAbsence of GA propose high risk of program failure, less success or reinforce inequity
16 When to conduct a Gender Analysis Gender Analysis should/can be undertaken at any/all stages of a program/project cycle, including:Identification of the project;Planning or design of the activity;Implementation; andMonitoring and evaluation of programMost effective when initiated during design phase
17 Who should do gender analysis GovernmentPolicy makersDonorsProgram ManagersDevelopment StaffField workers, etc.GA should be participatory involving key stakeholders from the field where the intervention is to take placeGender Analysis can be conducted through a variety of Tools and Frameworks
18 HOW TO DO GENDER ANALYSIS Gender Analysis FrameworksGender roles framework (Harvard)Triple roles framework (Carolyn Moser)Web of institutionalisation framework (Caren Levy)Gender analysis matrix (GAM)Equality and empowerment framework (Sara Longwe)Capacities and vulnerabilities framework (CVA)People oriented planning framework (POP)Social relations framework (SRF)
19 gender analysis questions Who does what within and outside of the household?Are the roles, responsibilities and priorities of men and women, both within and outside the household, different?Who owns/controls/accesses what?Are there differences among women and men?What are the institutional, economic and social factors?Will failure to consider these differences negatively impact programs/policies in terms of causing undesirable outcomes for men and/or women? If so, how, and what response is appropriate?SLIDE CONTENT: A gender analysis can be rigorous, or as simple as looking at programming and policies from a different perspective – gathering information to ensure that the intervention is as effective and equal from the onset. While the concept of gender analysis seems straight forward enough, it may also seem overwhelming. Where do you start? One place to begin is by answering a number of key questions. The World Bank developed the following questions that can be applied to any technical area to give you a better understanding of the underlying gender dynamics. These questions are particularly helpful as you are conducting your initial needs assessment in a given sector. For example, you know you want to develop a policy or a program to address the issue of adult education. Answering these questions may give you a better sense of the nature of the problem and the best way to address it.Who does what? Are the roles, responsibilities and priorities of men and women, both within and outside the household, different?Who owns what? Who controls what? Who has access to what? Are there differences among women and men?If there are differentials in the above two areas, what are the institutional, economic and social factors that underlie, support or influence them?Will failure to consider these differences negatively impact programs/policies in terms of causing undesirable outcomes for men and/or women? If so, how, and what response is appropriate?
20 gender analysis questions What capabilities, opportunities and decision making powers do men and women have?Did you review sex-disaggregated data?Were women and men consulted?Have the different needs, interests and responsibilities been considered?What groups are most likely to be affected and how?
21 Steps in Gender Analysis Assess current situation/policies and needsCollect and analyze sex disaggregated dataEstablish a baselineSLIDE CONTENT: A systematic, step-by-step approach can make the task seem more manageable. Let’s consider the basic steps in a gender analysis.Assess current situation and needs: Collect/assess relevant information on different roles, needs and resources of men and women regarding the proposed sector or intervention. What are the underlying institutional, economic, social and political factors that contribute to these differences? Review the regulatory or legal framework in a country. For example, if you are looking to develop a program or policy on land tenure, you would want to know what rights women currently have and whether these rights are protected. Don’t forget to communicate with the potential beneficiaries to hear directly from them their needs, concerns and constraints. This means talking to both men AND women.Collect and analyze sex disaggregated data at the country/sub-country and sectoral/program levels. Good data helps you to develop a more effective and targeted policy or program based on a careful analysis of the problem. For example, if the problem is that girls frequently drop out of school, you would need to know why this was happening to be able to design a program or policy to address it. You might find that they are leaving because their parents are unwilling or unable to pay for costs such as school uniforms. Data also helps to establish a baseline. What was the situation before you implemented your policy/program? For example, if a new policy is to pay for school uniforms for girls, knowing how many girls attended school before would be useful. After the policy has been implemented, refer back to this baseline to observe changes and measure impact.
22 Assess current situation (continued) Draft program/policyExpected impact on women and menCan negative impacts be overcome?ImplementMonitor and evaluateIdentify benefits/negative impactsSolicit feedback and be responsiveSLIDE CONTENT: Draft program/policy: Now that you have had a chance to analyze existing data and hold consultations with relevant stakeholders, you should be in a good position to develop a responsive policy/program. Start with the goal and objectives. What are you trying to achieve, and how will you achieve it? Once you have the broad outlines of your policy or program, go back over it with a gender lens. What is the expected impact of the policy/program on women and men? How will you ensure that both women and men benefit? If there are any potential negative impacts, how will you mitigate them or compensate for them? Is there an explicit gender equality objective? If not, should there be? How do women and men view the proposed policy/program? Are they in favor of it?Implement: After refining the policy or program, put it into effect.Monitor and evaluate: Don’t forget to put in place a system for monitoring and evaluating the implementation of the policy or program. Is it having the intended impact? Who is benefitting from it and who, if anyone, is experiencing any negative impacts? Be sure to solicit feedback from stakeholders such as those meant to benefit from the policy or program. Be responsive to their feedback and revise the policy/program as need be.
23 How To Do Gender Analysis Collect Relevant Data:Sex–disaggregated information for analysis (Who does what?Gender roles, responsibilities, priorities of men and women both within and outside the household?Who has what?Who controls what?)Identify Relevant Gender Issues (women’s and men’s practical needs and strategic interests)Understand the institutional, economic, social, and political contexts (What are the differences, constraints, influences, power dynamics between women and men?)Understand the priorities and needs of both men and women affected by the project (what do they need/want?)
24 Gender Analysis Frameworks Gender roles framework (Harvard)Triple roles framework (Carolyn Moser)Web of institutionalisation framework (Caren Levy)Gender analysis matrix (GAM)Equality and empowerment framework (Sara Longwe)Capacities and vulnerabilities framework (CVA)People oriented planning framework (POP)Social relations framework (SRF)A Standardized format that guide you to do GAFrameworks are only tools, you have to decide how to confront the situationFrameworks can be combined according to particular situationsThe frameworks address different aspects of gender equality and therefore are useful in different situations. Harvard and Moser are particularly useful when analysing the division of labour in agriculture and in urban settings; Levy is useful for gender mainstreaming in institutions; GAM is useful when assessing gender differential impacts of projects at community level; Longwe is useful for assessment of empowerment of women due to interventions in all sectors; CVA deals mainly with humanitarian and disaster preparedness issues; POP is an expanded version of Harvard, dealing mainly with refugee issues; SRF is useful when dealing with sustainable development and institutional changeHarvard framework was developed at Harvard university. It is also called the Gender Roles Framework, was developed by the Harvard Institute for International Development in collaboration with the Women In Development office of USAID, and was first described in 1984 by Catherine Overholtand others. It was one of the earliest of such frameworks. The starting point for the framework was the assumption that it makes economic sense for development aid projects to allocate resources to women as well as men, which will make development more efficient – a position named the “efficiency approach"Harvard framework informs planners about the situations, roles, resources, various social, economical and political influencing factors and on the basis of this overall information, planners can design better and efficient projectsIt improves the visibility because it generates the sex dissegrated data
25 Harvard Analytical Framework also called the Gender Roles FrameworkIt was one of the earliest of such frameworksThe framework emphasizes that; both men and women are involved in development as actors and beneficiaries.As such there is economic sense in allocating resources to both.
26 Harvard Analytical Framework (contd…) It holds that doing this would make development more efficient – a position named the “efficiency approach“The Framework is based on the premise that development affects women and men differently and affects them whether or not development had the women and men in mind when planning.To map the work of men and women in the community and highlight the key differences
27 Four Components of the Harvard Framework Activity ProfileAccess and Control ProfileAnalysis of Influencing FactorsProject cycle analysis
28 Four Components (Contd….) The activity profile, focuses on activities undertaken in communities as either productive or reproductive and then outlines who do them, when and where. It also looks at how and why the activities are done.This process helps to understand the gender division of labour and how it evolves.the access and control profile, which identifies the resources used to carry out the work identified in the activity profile, and access to and control over their use, by gender
30 Harvard framework - 2 Tool 2: The access and control profile – analyses resources available in the project and what benefit accrues from their being usedit analyses who (male or female has access to these resources (ex. land, equipment, capital etc.)?who has access to benefits (ex. education, health services, political power etc.)?who has control over resources and benefits?In gender analysis, it is often found out that whereas women have wide access to resources and benefits, control largely rests with men and this tilts gender power relations.We analyze what resources people use to carry out the tasks identified in step 1 activity profile.Do we understand that Access and control are different. Though women can unrestrictedly use some resources but not always they can control or take decisions about changing, buying, selling of these resources.If women have access to resources that may serve women’s practical needs, but it doesn’t serve women’s strategic needs in longer term. For gender equity women and men should have equal control over resources like buying or selling of land, or other property.
31 Tool 2: Access and control profile Assets, ResourcesLandEquipmentCashEducationTrainingOtherW/MMBenefitsIncomeHealthWater User GroupPolitical powerW
32 Tool 3: Influencing factors 3. These are factors that influence the pattern in the two profiles above (Components 1 & 2)This component allows us to identify factors that determine the gender differences –Political, economic, cultural etc.Community norms, social hierachiesTraining and educationAttitude of community towards external development workersPast and present influencesOpportunities and constraintsUnderstanding influencing factors helps to identify entry points for appropriate interventions and options for change
33 Tool 4: Project-cycle Analysis This is the last component in the Harvard framework.It takes the project in its entirety and applies the three foregoing components, i.e. Activity profile, Access and Control profile and the influencing factors to determine how gender interacts with each project stage enumerated below
34 PROJECT-CYCLE ANALYSIS: Component/Tool 4 (contd….) Identification (Needs assessment and Objective formulation).Design (Anticipating implications to men and women and consideration access and control issues).Implementation (Ensuring gender balance in participation).Evaluation (Assessing differential impact on women and men).
35 Moser Gender Analysis Framework A planning methodology aimed at the emancipation of women from their subordination and their achievement of equality, equity and empowerment.The salient features of the framework are its inclusion of the policy approaches to women’s development, recognition of the triple roles of women, the distinction of practical and strategic gender interests as well as emphasis of the empowerment agenda
36 Moser Gender Analysis Framework (contd….) It recognizes that there may be institutional /political resistance to addressing and transforming gender relations.Its approach to planning challenges unequal gender relations and supports the empowerment of women.The concept of practical and strategic gender needs is a very useful tool for evaluating the impact of a development intervention on gender relations.
37 Moser Gender Analysis Framework (contd….) The triple role concept is useful in revealing the wide range of work that women engage in.Furthermore it alerts planners to the interrelationship between productive, reproductive and community roles.
38 Elements of the Framework Establishing “gender planning” as a type of planning in its own right.Incorporates three concepts:women’s triple rolepractical and strategic gender needspolicy approach categories.Questions the assumption that planning is a technical task – gender planning is both technical and political; assumes conflict in planning process; involves transformative processes; and characterizes planning as debate.
39 What the Framework tells you Division of labor within the household and community.Needs relating to male-female subordination.Gender differences in access to and control over resources and decision-making.Degree to which policies, programs and projects address practical and strategic gender needs.
40 Moser Gender Analysis Framework (contd….) Using the three categories of reproductive, productive and community-management activities, map the gender division of labor by asking “who does what?” for activities in each.Using three categories helps highlight community management work that may often be ignored or overlooked in economic analysis.Use a matrix similar to the Activity Profile in the Harvard analytical framework but ensure that the three categories of productive, reproductive and community work are included.
41 Gender Analysis Matrix The tool uses participatory methodology to facilitate the definition and analysis of gender issues by the communities that are affected by them.Using the Gender Analysis Matrix will provide a unique articulation of issues as well as develop gender analysis capacity from the grassroots level up.All requisite knowledge for gender analysis exists among the people whose lives are the subject of the analysisGender analysis does not require the technical expertise of those outside the community being analyzed, except as facilitatorsGender analysis cannot be transformative unless the analysis is done by the people being analyzed.
42 Gender Analysis Matrix Developed by Rani Parker (1993)Provides a community based technique for identification and analysisInitiates a process of analysis that identifies and challenges gender roles within the community in a constructive manner.
43 Aim of the GAMTo find out the different impacts of development interventions on women and men by providing a community-based technique for the identification and analysis of gender differencesAt the planning stage →determine potential gender effectsAt the design stage → gender considerations may change the designDuring monitoring stage →address broader program impacts
44 Gender Analysis Matrix (contd… Secondly, it assists the community to identify and challenge their assumptions about gender roles in a constructive manner..Can be transformative if done by communityNo need for experts except as facilitatorsPeople are the subject of analysis
45 Gender Analysis Matrix (contd… The analysis is conducted at four levels of society, women, men, household and community. The GAM examines impact on four areas: labour, time, resources and socio-cultural factors.It is simple, systematic and uses familiar concepts. It encourages “bottom-up analysis” through community participation.It is transformatory and technical in its approach, combining awareness-raising about gender inequalities with development of practical skills. It includes men as a category and therefore can be used in interventions that target men.
46 Women Equality and Empowerment framework Developed by Sara Longwe for UNICEF and is an amplification of the Caroline Moser’s Framework.It encourages users of the framework to examine what is meant by empowerment.The Longwe Framework shares some common ground with the Moser Framework’s concept of practical and strategic gender needs.However, Longwe moves beyond the notion of separate needs to show in the framework that development intervention can contain both
47 Which gender frameworks is best addressing male gender identity and roles? Ordinarily, gender-analysis frameworks do not tend to be used to plan interventions, which target men or boys.However, a gender analysis should take place for all interventions, because they all have potential impact on gender relations and therefore on both sexesAlso understanding gender relations is critical to understanding possibilities and constraints for working with men onlyThere is an increasing awareness that gender identity cross- cuts other identity issues, including race and class, to affect men’s and women’s roles in the gender division of labour.
48 Contd….Most of the gender frameworks– look at the gender roles and relations of both women and men, and so could be used for projects, which target menThe Moser Framework looks at the strategic gender needs of women only, but its adapted includes men as well, and can also be used with projects, which address male gender.Gender Analysis Matrix (GAM) includes men as one of its four categories of analysis and can therefore be used for projects, which target men
49 “ Gender is between your ears and not between your legs Chaz Bono