Presentation on theme: "1 21ST SESSION OF AFRICAN COMMSION FOR AGRICULTURE STATISTICS WORKSHOPWORKSHOP HELD IN ACCRA, GHANA, 28 – 31 OCTOBER 2009 By Lubili Marco Gambamala National."— Presentation transcript:
1 21ST SESSION OF AFRICAN COMMSION FOR AGRICULTURE STATISTICS WORKSHOPWORKSHOP HELD IN ACCRA, GHANA, 28 – 31 OCTOBER 2009 By Lubili Marco Gambamala National Bureau of Statistics 97.7% of smallholder agric rural households use hand hoe, 2002/03 Agric Sample Census Integrating Gender Concerns into Agriculture Censuses: A Case of Tanzania
Contents Introduction The Gender Profile of small holder Rural Agriculture Households in Tanzania The list of Gender indicators The snapshot of the Gender Profile in Tanzania The DATA Collection Tools and improvements made for the 2007/08 Agriculture Sample Census Questionnaire Conclusion and Recommendations
1.Introduction In most developing countries there has been an increasing trend towards what is been termed as the 'feminization of agriculture'. –As men's participation in agriculture declines, the role of women in agricultural production becomes more dominant. –Involvements in high risk activities like mining, War, fishing, hunting, burglary, death from HIV/AIDS have reduced rural male populations. –migration of men from rural areas to towns and cities, in their own countries or abroad, in search of paid employment. On the other hand; the division of labour and responsibilities between sexes in rural agrarian communities has been set – by various cultural, religious and sometimes political norms. –one of the sexes being disadvantaged in relation to access to natural resources, rural infrastructure, education, health and other services. –It is often women who are more disadvantaged than men Feminization of the agriculture Sector
4 –Social relations i.e. how men and women are defined in the given context, in their normative roles, duties and responsibilities; –Activities i.e. the division of labour in both productive and reproductive work within the household and the community; –Access and control over resources, services, institutions of decision making and networks of power and authority; and –Needs, the distinct needs of men and women, both practical and strategic needs. Gender analysis assumes that men and women differ in the goods and services they produce and in their degree of access to and control of resources. Gender analysis is a tool used to provide a better understanding of the realities of men and women and boys and girls. It aims to expose the dynamics of gender- based differences across a variety of issues Feminization of ………..cont…
The 2002/3 and 2007/8 Agriculture Sample Censuses are designed to meet the data needs of a wide range of users down to district level including policy makers at local, regional and national levels, rural development agencies, funding institutions, researchers, NGOs, farmer organizations, etc. Specifically the Gender Profile was meant to provide information to meet the following list of indicators The Gender Profile of small holder Rural Agriculture Households in Tanzania The Gender Profile of small holder Rural Agriculture Households in Tanzania provide an insight of the extent of the differences which are happening between male and females in rural areas and the information can be used by the planning and the policy making community to alleviate the situation.
Category of enquiryIssues to be considered / data to be collected Agricultural population Agricultural population by sex and age; Active agricultural population by sex and age and involvement in agricultural activities; Agricultural holders/heads of agricultural households by sex and main sources of income; Dependency ratios by sex of head of agricultural household.i.e. number of dependents versus number of adults in male and female headed households; Education status of the head of household by sex; Education status of the active agricultural population by sex of head of household; Off-farm income of active agricultural population by sex and age category (youth, active, elderly) by sex of head of household Access to and control over productive resources or assets To what extent do females and males have access to: land, credit, markets, extension services, agricultural inputs, livestock, forest resources, fish, animal production and technologies Labour concerns - gender based participation in agricultural production Gender based participation in crop production, animal production, fish farming and forest exploitation; Who is responsible for maintenance of human resources Storage, processing and marketing of agricultural produce Differences between male and female headed households involvement in storage, processing and marketing Access to credit Main forms of credit available to male and female heads of households Levels of credit Use of credit Access to domestic resources Gender-based differences in accessing housing, energy, clean water and sanitation; Ownership of small assets like radios or bicycles Poverty reduction Access to basic services Impact of the land act on women’s access to land; Income related poverty issues Other cross -cutting issues The list of Gender differences indicators
–The total number of agriculture households increased from 4,396,406 in 1997/1998 to 4,805,314 in 2002/2003, an increase of 8.5 percent over a 4 year period. There has been a larger increase in female headed households than male headed households (8% increase for male headed households and 14% for female headed households), –For the active agriculture population in Tanzania, the result show that, 49 percent are males compared to 51 percent females. –The illiteracy rate for male headed household is 21 percent compared to 51 percent for female headed households. –The majority of households ranked annual crop farming as their most important source of livelihood and there is little difference between male and female headed households. The snapshot of the Gender Profile in Tanzania
–A higher percent of female headed households rely on remittances compared to male headed households. –Slightly higher percent of female headed household members are involved in off farm income generating activities compared to male headed households (44 and 39% respectively) –Female headed households have a higher percent of children that are orphans 2.3% compared to male headed households 1.2%. –Male headed households have 1.1 hectares more land than female headed households –Very few male headed households (12%) have female land holders, whilst 50 percent of female headed households have female land holders. This means that female headed households either have male members that are holders or that female headed households do not have secure rights to land and further investigation is required to determine this. The snapshot of the Gender Profile in Tanzania………
The DATA Collection Tools and improvements made for the 2007/08 Agriculture Sample Census Questionnaire
Conclusion and Recommendations –Most of the gender analysis employed in analyzing the gender profile of small holder rural agriculture households in Tanzania, concentrated in identifying differences between male and female headed households and whilst large differences were detected in some variables, in most cases the differences were small or absent. –Future work on gender analysis of the agriculture sector should not only concentrate on the differences between male and female headed households but also on differences based on the percent or number of females within households as it may be that cultural norms are maintained more by male headed households than female headed households and that the disparity between males and females within a male headed households may be larger than in female headed households.