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Climate Chapter 14.

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Presentation on theme: "Climate Chapter 14."— Presentation transcript:

1 Climate Chapter 14

2 Climate

3 What is climate? What is the definition of climate from Chapter 12?
Long term variations in weather for an area What is climatology? The study of Earth’s climate

4 Normals Climate data is compiled from meteorological records continuously. This data is averaged on a monthly or annual basis for 30 years to determine the normals. What is a normal? Standard value for a location Do not describe daily weather conditions

5 Normals

6 What Causes Climate? Latitude: How would latitude affect climate?
Amount of solar radiation received at any one place differs. What areas receive the most? Tropics 2. Topographic Effects Large bodies of water heat and cool slowly What does this mean for costal areas? Remain warmer in winter What do you think mountain climates are like? Usually cooler due to higher elevation

7 Latitude

8 Topographic Effects

9 What Causes Climate? 3. Air Masses
Areas where air masses form have similar climate to the air mass itself

10 Climate Classification
Two Factors used: 1. Temperature 2. Amount of Precipitation Koeppen classification system Based on average monthly temp. and precipitation values

11 Tropical Climates Constant high temperatures
Most have large amounts of rain Some have dry winters (Savannas) Dramatic vegetation

12 Dry Climates 30% of Earth’s land area Largest climatic zone Deserts
Low precipitation Scarce vegetation Hot, tropical air

13 Mild Climates Humid Subtropical: SE United States
Subtropical high-pressure systems over oceans in summer Warm, muggy weather during the summer 2. Marine West Coast: West United States Constant inland flow of air off ocean Mild winters, cool summers Abundant precipitation 3. Mediterranean: Italy and Spain Warm Summers

14 Continental Climate Three Zones Clashing tropical and polar air masses
Warm Summer Cool Summer Subarctic Clashing tropical and polar air masses What occurs when this happens? Tornadoes Rapid and violent changes in weather; extreme temperatures; A lot of precipitation in summer

15 Polar Climates Coldest regions on Earth Precipitation is low
Heat radiation by Earth’s surface is low. Too low to produce strong convection currents What do convection currents produce? Heavy precipitation

16 Microclimate A localized climate that differs from the main regional climate Heat Islands Buildings and concrete cause climate to be warmer than surrounding rural areas Concrete radiates a lot of heat back in to the air

17 Heat islands

18 Ice Ages Periods of extensive glacial coverage.
Average global temperature decreases by 5°C Most recent ended about 10,000 years ago

19 Short-Term Climate Change:
Seasons: short-term periods of climatic change Caused by regular variations in daylight, temperature, and weather patterns. Tilt of Earth Orbit of Earth Amount of sunlight

20 Short-Term Climate Change
El Nino: warm ocean current Occasionally develops off South America Warms air on South American coast

21 Natural Climate Change
Solar Activity Maunder minimum: low sunspot activity corresponds to unusually cold climatic episode Earth’s Orbit: varies from circular to elliptical What do you think happens when the orbit goes from circular to elliptical? Elliptical=Earth passes closer to the sun=warmer temps Earth’s Wobble: Earth does not always point to the North Star which changes effects of seasons Volcanoes: How would this affect climate? Volcanic ash can block solar radiation

22 Greenhouse Effect Retention of heat by the atmosphere Global warming:
Keeps Earth from getting too hot or too cold Global warming: Theory that the release of too much CO2 in the atmosphere is causing an increase in global temperatures Deforestation contributes to global warming

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