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Treatment Unit XIII. Therapy throughout time we have treated psychological disorders with a variety of harsh and gentle methods – examples: cutting holes.

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Presentation on theme: "Treatment Unit XIII. Therapy throughout time we have treated psychological disorders with a variety of harsh and gentle methods – examples: cutting holes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Treatment Unit XIII

2 Therapy throughout time we have treated psychological disorders with a variety of harsh and gentle methods – examples: cutting holes in the head and by giving warm baths and massages restraining, bleeding, or "beating the devil" out of people placing them in sunny, serene environments or by giving drugs and electric shocks talking about childhood experiences, about current feelings, or about maladaptive thoughts and behaviors

3 Therapy the transition from brutal to gentler treatments occurred because of the efforts of reformers like Philippe Pinel and Dorothea Dix both advocated constructing mental hospitals to offer more humane methods of treatment therapeutic drugs and community-based treatment programs has largely emptied mental health hospitals since the mid 1950s treatment today often depend's on the therapist's viewpoint

4 Therapy if the doctor believes the disorder is learned then the doctor will lean more toward psychological therapies if the doctor believes the disorder is biological they will lean more to medication therapy if the doctor believes the disorder is a response to social conditions they will look to reform the "sick" environment therapies are classified into two categories: – Psychological therapies – Biomedical therapies

5 Therapy Psychotherapy- an emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulties – 250 types of psychotherapy have been identified they are each built on one or more of psychology's major theories: – psychoanalytic, humanistic, behavioral, and cognitive some therapists like to use a combination of therapies

6 Therapy half of psychotherapists describe themselves as taking an eclectic approach – an approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy psychotherapy integration- closely related to eclecticism – instead of picking and choosing methods, integration advocates trying to combine them into a single, coherent system

7 Therapy Psychoanalysis- Freud's therapeutic technique – the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences- and the therapist's interpretations of them- released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight assumes that many psychological problems are fueled by childhood's residue of repressed impulses and conflicts

8 Therapy in order to become healthier, patients must release the energy they had previously devoted to id-ego-superego conflicts psychoanalysis is historical reconstruction Freud believed hypnosis to be unreliable he used free association more often but many times the patient would hesitate to talk about embarrassing things the blocks in the flow of free association indicates resistance – the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material

9 Therapy when a psychoanalysis sees the existence of resistance, they look to explore that sensitive area the therapists wants the patient to recognize their own resistance and interpret its underlying meaning the therapist's interpretations look to provide the patient with insight – interpretations- the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors in order to promote insight

10 Therapy Freud also used dream analysis to reach those repressed thoughts and feelings most of the things discussed in a session will focus on childhood memories often times a patient will find themselves experiencing strong positive or negative feelings for their analyst the feelings may express the dependency or mingled love and anger that you earlier experienced toward family members or other important people in your life

11 Therapy when a patient experiences these feelings, Freud would say the patient is actually transferring their strongest feelings from those other relationships to the analyst – transference- the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships by expressing these feelings with the analysts, the patient can finally work through the repressed feelings with the analyst

12 Therapy psychoanalysis is built on the assumption that repressed memories exist that assumption is being highly debated in today's psychology circles psychoanalysts' interpretations are hard to prove or disprove – if the patient agrees with the interpretations it supports their ideas, if the patient disagrees with the analysts they are said to be facing resistance

13 Therapy psychoanalysis is said to be therapy, not science psychoanalysts believe their interpretations provide great help to the patients traditional psychoanalysis takes time, up to several years of several sessions a week, and is expensive

14 Therapy there are few traditional psychoanalysts today psychoanalytic assumptions do influence many therapists though Psychodynamic therapists are greatly influenced by psychoanalytic assumptions Psychodynamic therapists try to understand a patient's current symptoms by exploring childhood experiences they probe for supposed repressed, emotion-laden information, seeking to help the person gain insight into the unconscious roots of problems

15 Therapy these therapists may talk to the patient face to face, rather than out of the line of vision like psychoanalysts they will see the patient once a week instead of several times a week they will only see them for a couple of weeks or months instead of several years Interpersonal psychotherapy is an alternative to psychodynamic therapy – effective with depressed patients – focus on current relationships instead of past ones

16 Therapy interpersonal therapy tries to help people improve their relationship skills – its goal is not personality change but symptom relief in the here and now

17 Therapy humanistic therapists aim to boost self- fulfillment by helping people grow in self- awareness and self-acceptance focus on: – the here and now more than the past – conscious rather than unconscious thoughts – taking immediate responsibility for one's feelings and actions rather than blaming the past – promoting growth instead of curing illness

18 Therapy Carl Roger's developed the widely used technique called client-centered therapy – the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients' growth – does not focus on the therapist's interpretations the therapist will use a nondirective therapy when using client-centered therapy – the therapist listens, without judging or interpreting, and refrains from directing the client toward insights

19 Therapy Rogers encourages therapists to use genuineness, acceptance, and empathy if the therapists shows these traits it can help the clients deepen their self-understanding and self- acceptance Rogers also uses the technique of active listening – empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies- used in client-centered this technique is widely accepted today

20 Therapy behavior therapists doubt the healing power of self-awareness they assume that problem behaviors are the problem instead of trying to resolve an underlying problem, they look to behavior therapy – applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors for example to treat a phobia they do not look for underlying causes but look to switch bad learned behaviors with constructive behaviors

21 Therapy some behavior therapists try to use classical conditioning to change certain maladaptive learned behaviors – example: having an alarm go off when a child wets the bed waking the child up Counterconditioning is also used – conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors; based on classical conditioning

22 Therapy exposure therapies are a way to conduct counterconditioning – treats anxiety by exposing people to the things they fear and avoid Systematic desensitization is a form of exposure therapy – associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli used to treat phobias usually

23 Therapy Aversive conditioning is another form of counterconditioning – associates an unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior operant conditioning can be used as well by reinforcing desired behaviors or to punish undesired behaviors

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