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The Myth and magic of Vajrayana

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1 The Myth and magic of Vajrayana
Tibetan Buddhism The Myth and magic of Vajrayana

2 Three Turnings of the Wheel
First Turning: in Deer Park, Sarnath Teaching: 4 Noble Truths Basic Vehicle/Hinayana Practitioners: Shravakas (Listeners) and Pratyekabuddhas (Solitary Realizers); Fruition: Arhat (“Foe-destroyer”) Second Turning: at Vulture Peak Mountain, Rajgrih Teaching: Emptiness (shunyata) and compassion (bodhichitta) Great Vehicle/Mahayana Practitioners: Bodhisattvas; Fruition: Buddha Third Turning: at various times and places Teaching: Mantra and buddha nature Diamond Vehicle/Vajrayana “Result vehicle”: Taking the result as the path

3 The Four Noble Truths 1. The Truth of Suffering (dukha)
Birth, old age, sickness, and death 2. The Truth of the Origin of Suffering Karma and ignorance (avidya, marigpa) 3. The Truth of the Cessation of Suffering 4. The Truth of the Path

4 The Eightfold Noble Path
1. Right view 2. Right intention 3. Right speech 4. Right action 5. Right livelihood 6. Right effort 7. Right mindfulness 8. Right concentration

5 Three Higher Trainings
Ethics: refraining from 3 physical non-virtues: killing, stealing, sexual misconduct 4 verbal non-virtues: lying, divisiveness, harsh speech, meaningless chatter, 3 mental non-virtues: greed, wish to harm, and wrong view Concentration/meditation Shamatha (calm abiding): Analytical meditation and resting meditation Vipashyana (clear seeing) Wisdom (Skt. prajna, Tib. sherab)

6 Tibetan Canon: “Kangyur” The Words of the Buddha


8 Mahayana (Great Vehicle)
Second turning of the wheel Key teachings: Shunyata (emptiness or openness) and bodhichitta (heart or mind of enlightenment) Practitioners: Bodhisattvas The path: The five paths and the ten levels (bhumis) Literature: Prajnaparamita (The Perfection of Wisdom) Fruition: Buddhahood

9 Two Types of Obscurations and Identity
Emotional obscurations Identity of the individual selflessness of the person - Imputed self - Instinctive self Cognitive obscurations Identity of phenomena (dharma) identitylessness of things

10 Bodhichitta “The heart of awakened mind”
Def: The wish to attain enlightenment for the sake of all sentient beings. Aspirational Bodhichitta: The four immeasurables – love, compassion, joy, equanimity Engaged Bodhichitta: The six perfections: Generosity, discipline, patience, joyful diligence, meditation, wisdom

11 Four Immeasurables Immeasurable love: wishing happiness and the causes of happiness - Antidote to enmity (and attachment) Immeasurable compassion: wishing freedom from suffering - Antidote to anger (and pity) Immeasurable joy: wishing all sentient beings never to be separated from happiness - Antidote to jealousy Immeasurable equanimity - Antidote to indifference and prejudice (and clinging)

12 Samsara and Nirvana Samsara (Skt.; lit. “wandering”)
= Cycle of rebirth Nirvana (Skt.; lit. “blowing out, extinguishing”)

13 Spread of Vajrayana in Tibet
3rd-11th century development of Tantra in India Early transmission in Tibet: 7th cent. = Nyingma School King Songtsen Gampo ( ?) Trisong Detsen ( ) Ralpachen ( ) Second dissemination (from 978 onwards) Rinchen Sangpo, Atisha, (founder of Kadampa) = eventually Sarma (“New”) Schools

14 Later Dissemination Ascent of Mongols in 12th century = priest-patron relationship with Sakya 1249 treaty Godan – Sakya Pandita 1st Compilation of Kangyur and Tengyur Tsongkhapa ( ) 15th century: Gelukpa ascent to power 1578 Sonam Gyatso meets Altan Khan = establishment of Dalai Lama title 5th Dalai Lama ( ), “Great Fifth,” First Dalai Lama to rule over a unified Tibet with Mongol protection

15 The Wheel of Life: The 12 Links
The 12 Links of Dependent Origination Metaphor 1. Ignorance 2. Karma/formations 3. Consciousness 4. Name and form 5. 6 senses 6. Contact 7. Feeling 8. Craving 9. Grasping 10. Becoming 11. Rebirth 12. Old age and death Blind man Potter Monkey Boat w/ 4 passengers House w/ 6 openings Couple kissing Man w/arrow in eye Man takes drink Man picks fruit Pregnant woman Childbirth Corpse

16 3 Kayas (Bodies) Dharmakaya (“Embodiment of Truth”)
Ultimate state of nirvana; no form Sambhogakaya (“Embodiment of Enjoyment”) Form of light; not accessible to ordinary beings Nirmanakaya (“Embodiment of Manifestation”) Physical emanation

17 3 Types of Nirmanakaya (acc. to Ray)
1) Fully enlightened Buddha, e.g. Buddha Shakyamuni 2) Realized human being, e.g. tulkus 3) Created objects, e.g. stupa

18 Philosophical system (tenet)
Drubtha (grub mtha’) siddhanta “established/final conclusion”

19 Three Prajnas (or Wisdom Tools)
Wisdom of Listening Wisdom of Contemplation Wisdom of Meditation

20 The Four Seals: What Makes You a Buddhist or Not a Buddhist
1. Everything compounded is impermanent. 2. Everything tainted is suffering. 3. All phenomena are empty and devoid of self. 4. Nirvana is peace.

21 Four Buddhist Approaches
YANA SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY KEY MASTERS Hinayana Vaibhashika (Tib. chedrak mawa, Particularist) Vasubandhu (4th century) Sautrantika (Tib. dodépa, Followers of Sutra): - According to scripture - According to reasoning Vasubandhu Dignaga ( CE) Dharmakirti (7th century) Mahayana Chittamatra (Tib. Sem tsampa, Mentalist)/Yogachara (Tib. naljor chöpa, Practitioners of Yoga) Asaoga (4th century) Madhyamaka (Tib. Uma, Middle Way) Svatantrika (Uma rang gyüpa) Prāsaogika (Uma tal gyurwa) Nagarjuna (2nd century) Bhavaviveka ( ) Sāntarakrita ( ) Candrakirti ( )

22 The Two Truths “The doctrines that Buddha taught are based upon two truths: Worldly conventional truths and truths that are ultimate objects. Those who do not know the distinction between these two truths Do not know the profound suchness in Buddha’s teachings.” Nagarjuna, Treatise on the Middle Way Conventional truth (samvpti-satya, kundzob denpa) Ultimate truth (paramartha satya, döndam denpa)

23 The Two Truths for the Vaibharika
“When objects are destroyed or mentally dissected, They can no longer be identified by the mind. Such things like pots or water, are relative; All else besides is ultimately existent.” Vasubandhu, Abhidharmakosha

24 5 Skandhas (Aggregates)
= What constitutes a person Form - Outer form: E.g. five elements: wind, fire, etc. - Inner form: the body and its organs Perception: The sensory perceptions Feeling: Positive, negative, or neutral Formation: mainly thoughts/concepts (51 types) Consciousness: 6 consciousnesses of eye, ear, nose, tongue, touch, and mental perceptions

25 The Two Truths of the Sautrantika
“Here, what is genuinely able to perform a function Is what genuinely exists. Everything else is seemingly existent. These are explained as specifically characterized and generally characterized (chi dön) phenomena.” Dharmakirti, Commentary on Valid Cognition

26 Sautrantika (Followers of Sutra)
Relative truth: Generally characterized (concepts) Absolute truth: Specifically characterized (the objects we directly perceive) Concepts are not problematic in themselves – it is our confusion about them. We do not see concepts accurately, just as they are.

27 Sautrantika Sautrantika following scripture
Sautrantika following reasoning (Dharmakirti and Dignaga) Perception is a two-step process: In the first moment, the senses perceive the object directly, without any concepts. In the second moment, concepts enter in and we label.

28 Direct Perception (acc to Sautrantika)
as opposed to inference Sensory perception (non-conceptual) Sense consciousness Self-awareness Yogic perception

29 Main Points (Sautrantika)
Consciousness is self-aware (rang rig) and other-aware (shen rig) We perceive the external world indirectly through mental representations There is a clear distinction made between perception and concepts The three times are imputed.

30 Four Buddhist Approaches
YANA SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY KEY MASTERS Hinayana Vaibhashika (Tib. chedrak mawa, Particularist) Vasubandhu (4th century) Sautrantika (Tib. dodépa, Followers of Sutra): - According to scripture - According to reasoning Vasubandhu Dignaga ( CE) Dharmakirti (7th century) Mahayana Chittamatra (Tib. Sem tsampa, Mentalist)/Yogachara (Tib. naljor chöpa, Practitioners of Yoga) Asaoga (4th century) Madhyamaka (Tib. Uma, Middle Way) Svatantrika (Uma rang gyüpa) Prāsaogika (Uma tal gyurwa) Nagarjuna (2nd century) Bhavaviveka ( ) Shāntarakrita ( ) Chandrakirti ( )

31 Does the External World Exist?
Vaibhashika: The partless particle is real and the momentless moment is real. Sautrantika: I perceive it, so it must exist. Chittamatra: Only mind exists, the external world is illusory like a dream. Madhyamaka: Conventionally, there is no argument with ordinary people. Ultimately, things are neither real nor unreal, but interdependent.

32 Something is ultimately real when it is
Permanent (takpa) Singular (chikpu) Independent (rangwang)

33 Mind Only “The … realms of existence are merely mind.” Buddha, in the Perfection of Wisdom (Prajnaparamita) in 8,000 Verses “The world is led by mind And drawn by mind. All phenomena are controlled By one phenomenon, mind.” Buddha, in the Collection of Related Teachings

34 Refuting the Partless Particle
“When six other particles are joined to it, The subtle particle will have six parts. If the six all simply converge together, Then even compounds will be infinitesimal.” Vasubandhu, Twenty Verses

35 Eight Types of Consciousness
1-5) Five types of consciousness of the senses: • Consciousness of the eye • Consciousness of the ear • Consciousness of the nose • Consciousness of the tongue • Consciousness of the body 6) Mental consciousness 7) Afflicted consciousness or emotional mind: the subtle grasping which produces all the ignorance, destructive emotions and confusion of samsara. 8) Allground consciousness (alaya): it is neutral, neither positive nor negative.

36 Main Points of Chittamatra
No material objects can ultimately be established, only mind. There is no duality between perceiver and what is perceived. To establish all things as being the mind destroys the whole mechanism of samsara and thus leads to liberation.

37 Three Natures (Chittamatra)
Imputed nature (kun tag): the false, that which is labeled or projected, e.g. the self, “mine”, names, etc. e.g. Thinking Robert de Niro is really the Godfather Dependent nature (shen wang): mind and mental events of the beings in the three realms, the perception of the eight types of consciousnesses, sense objects e.g. The images, colors, movements on the screen Ultimate nature (yong drup): the completely existent Self-awareness, nondual cognition devoid of object and subject e.g. The light bulb in the film projector that makes everything else appear

38 Chittamatra’s Two Truths
“Perceived objects and perceiving subjects’ duality is relative. Consciousness that is empty of duality is genuine. This is the presentation of the mind-only school.” Jamgon Kongtrul, Treasury of Knowledge

39 “The whole purpose of Madhyamaka is to prove
that everything we think is wrong.” Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche

40 No View, No Fault “If I had a position, Then I would be at fault,
But because I have no position, I can only be without fault.” Nagarjuna, Refutation of Objections, Verse 29

41 Ten Questions the Buddha Answered With Silence
Is the universe eternal, not eternal, finite, or infinite? After death, does a Buddha continue to exist, not continue to exist, both, or neither? Are the body and the “self” the same entity, totally separate and different entities?

42 Shunyata Def: emptiness of inherent existence
Three fundamental principles to prove shunyata: a) Impermanence and change b) Lack of unitary existence (nothing is just one, self-contained entity, everything is composed of many parts and particles) c) Lack of independent existence (for example, things are defined in relation to each other)

43 Beyond Existence and Non-existence
“Existence” is the view of permanence, “Non-existence” is the view of extinction, Therefore, the wise do not abide Either in existence or in non-existence. Nagarjuna, Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way

44 Wisdom “When real and unreal both Are absent from before the mind Nothing else remains for mind to do But rest in utter peace, from concepts free.” Shantideva, Way of the Bodhisattva

45 The Five Great Madhyamika Arguments
The investigation of the essential nature: ‘neither one nor many’ The investigation of causes: the diamond splinters (or vajra slivers) The investigation of results: refuting existent or non-existent results The investigation of both causes and results The investigation of interdependence

46 The Four Extremes “There is no existence nor non-existence, Neither both nor not both. Those who are free from the four extremes Are referred to as “Madhyamikas”.” Ornament of the Middle Way

47 Interdependence “There is not a single thing That does not arise interdependently. Therefore there is not a single thing That is not emptiness.” Nagarjuna

48 Arising: Examining the Cause
If things truly exist, they have to be produced, or arise, either from themselves, from something other than themselves, from both of these, or Without a cause.

49 Refutation “Not from self, not from other,
Not from both and not from neither— Not from any entity at all anywhere, Is there ever any production.” Nagarjuna, Fundamental Verses of the Middle Way “Since things do no arise from self, other, both, nor without cause, They have no inherent nature at all.” Chandrakirti

50 Shunyata = Possibilities
“If emptiness is possible, Then everything is possible, But if emptiness is impossible, Then nothing else is possible either.” Nagarjuna, Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way

51 Divisions of Madhyamaka
SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY KEY MASTERS Madhyamaka “Middle Way” Nagarjuna (2nd cent) Aryadeva (3rd cent) SUBSCHOOLS Prasangika “Consequentialist” Buddhapalita (6th cent) Chandrakirti ( ) Shantideva (8th cent) Svatantrika “Autonomous School” Bhavaviveka ( ) Rangtong “Self-Empty” Shentong “Other-Empty” Yogachara Synthesis of Chittamatra and Madhyamaka Shantarakshita ( ) Kamalashila

52 Why Holding on to a Self Leads to Suffering
“When there is a self, one believes there is other. From these images of self and other come attachment and aversion. As a result of getting wrapped up in these, All possible faults arise.” Dharmakirti

53 Perfection of Wisdom “Form is emptiness, Emptiness is form. Form is no other than emptiness, Emptiness is no other than form.” From the Sutra of the Heart of Transcendent Wisdom

54 Interdependence: Beyond 8 Extremes
“Everything that arises interdependently is Unceasing and unborn, Neither non-existing nor everlasting, Neither coming nor going, Neither several in meaning nor with a single meaning.” Nagarjuna, Introduction to Fundamental Verses of the Middle Way

55 Fruition “What is without abandonment, without attainment, Without annihilation, without permanence, Without cessation, and without arising Is said to be nirvana.” Nagarjuna, Fundamental Treatise on the Middle Way

56 Divisions of Lineages LINEAGE KEY MASTERS Bon Nyingma
“Ancient” or “Old Translation” Padmasambhava SARMA “New Schools” Kadam Atisha (arrived in Tibet 1042) Kagyü “Oral Lineage” Tilopa ( ), Naropa ( ) Marpa, Milarepa Karmapas Sakya “Gray Earth” Virupa (9th or 10th C), Drogmi Sakya Panditas Gelug “Way of the Virtuous” Tsongkhapa ( ) Dalai Lamas RIMÉ “Non-sectarian” Jamgon Kongtrul Lodro Tayé

57 Separation from the Four Attachments
If you are attached to this life, then you are not a Dharma practitioner. If you are attached to existence (samsara), then you do not have renunciation. If you are attached to your own interests, then you do not have the mind of enlightenment (bodhichitta). If there is grasping, then you do not have the view. Künga Ningypo ( )

58 Tantric Initiation Vase initiation (found in all tantra sets)
Secret initiation (only in highest tantra) Wisdom initiation Word initiation = relation to 4 vidyadhara states = purpose to attain the 4 kayas (Dharmak., Sambhogak., Nirmanak., Svabhavikakaya)

59 4 CLASSES OF TANTRA Action Tantras: Outer activities, purification rituals, e.g. fasting Performance Tantras: Emphasize external activities and internal yoga, view of oneself as companion of deity Yoga Tantras: visualizing oneself as actual deity. Emphasizes internal yoga. Highest Yoga Tantras: Generation and completion. Subtle energies, winds, channels.

60 5 Buddha Families Buddha Vajra Ratna (Jewel) Padma (Lotus)
Karma (Action) Name Vairochana Akshobya Ratnasambhava Amitabha Amoghasiddha Color White Blue Yellow Red Green Poison Ignorance Anger Greed Desire Envy/jealousy Wisdom All-pervasive Mirror-like Equanimity Discriminating All-accomplishing Position Center/East East/Center South West North Mudra Teaching Earth touching Generosity Meditation Fearlessness Symbol Wheel Jewel Lotus Double Vajra Consort Tara Mamaki Lochana Pandaravasini Samayatara Skandha Form Consciousness Sensation Perception Formation Element Space Water Earth Fire Air

61 Two-armed Avalokiteshvara (Chenresig)

62 Thousand-armed Avalokiteshvara

63 The Fourteen Dalai Lamas
1st: Gyalwa Gendun Drubpa 2nd: Gyalwa Gendun Gyatso 3rd: G Sonam Gyatso 4th: G Yonten Gyatso 5th: G Ngawang Lobzang Gyatso 6th: G Tsangyang Gyatso 7th: G Kalzang Gyatso 8th: G Jampel Gyatso 9th: G Lungtok Gyatso 10th: G Tsultrim Gyatso 11th: G Khedrub Gyatso 12th: G Trinley Gyatso 13th: G Thubten Gyatso 14th: G Tenzin Gyatso *July 6, 1935

64 The Fifth Dalai Lama ( )

65 Bardo (Inbetween States)
Acc. to The Tibetan Book of the Dead (lit. “Liberation by Hearing While Inbetween”): The natural bardo of this life Bardo of dying Bardo of suchness, which features the experience of visions of various Buddha forms Bardo of becoming, or rebirth Bardo of dhyana (meditation) Bardo of dream (the dream state during normal sleep).

66 The Bardo of Dying: Dissolution of the Elements
1. Outer dissolution: Earth and skandha of form dissolves into Water Fire Air Space 2. Inner dissolution White and red element meet, natural luminosity dawns

67 Phowa: Transference of Consciousness

68 Spread of Vajrayana India: Vajrayana flourished in India until the 11th century. China and countries with Chinese influence (e.g. Taiwan): began first half of the 7th century CE (close to Shingon). Tibetan Buddhism in Tibet and Himalayan region (Bhutan, Sikkim, Ladakh) Japan: In 804 CE, the Japanese monk Kukai founded the Shingon school of Vajrayāna Buddhism, which has continued to the present time. Also Tendai sect (Vajrayana influences). Indonesia and Malaysia: established in the late 8th century, driven out by Islam in the 13th century. Mongolia: began during the 13th century (Prince Godan), but revival in the 17th century and 20th century. Nepal: Newari Buddhism Russia: especially Kalmyck region, currently revival.

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