Presentation on theme: "The Myth and magic of Vajrayana"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Myth and magic of Vajrayana Tibetan BuddhismThe Myth and magicof Vajrayana
2 Three Turnings of the Wheel First Turning: in Deer Park, SarnathTeaching: 4 Noble TruthsBasic Vehicle/HinayanaPractitioners: Shravakas (Listeners) and Pratyekabuddhas (Solitary Realizers); Fruition: Arhat (“Foe-destroyer”)Second Turning: at Vulture Peak Mountain, RajgrihTeaching: Emptiness (shunyata) and compassion (bodhichitta)Great Vehicle/MahayanaPractitioners: Bodhisattvas; Fruition: BuddhaThird Turning: at various times and placesTeaching: Mantra and buddha natureDiamond Vehicle/Vajrayana“Result vehicle”: Taking the result as the path
3 The Four Noble Truths 1. The Truth of Suffering (dukha) Birth, old age, sickness, and death2. The Truth of the Origin of SufferingKarma and ignorance (avidya, marigpa)3. The Truth of the Cessation of Suffering4. The Truth of the Path
4 The Eightfold Noble Path 1. Right view2. Right intention3. Right speech4. Right action5. Right livelihood6. Right effort7. Right mindfulness8. Right concentration
5 Three Higher Trainings Ethics:refraining from 3 physical non-virtues: killing, stealing, sexual misconduct4 verbal non-virtues: lying, divisiveness, harsh speech, meaningless chatter,3 mental non-virtues: greed, wish to harm, andwrong viewConcentration/meditationShamatha (calm abiding): Analytical meditation and resting meditationVipashyana (clear seeing)Wisdom (Skt. prajna, Tib. sherab)
8 Mahayana (Great Vehicle) Second turning of the wheelKey teachings: Shunyata (emptiness or openness)and bodhichitta (heart or mind of enlightenment)Practitioners: BodhisattvasThe path: The five paths and the ten levels (bhumis)Literature: Prajnaparamita (The Perfection of Wisdom)Fruition: Buddhahood
9 Two Types of Obscurations and Identity Emotional obscurationsIdentity of the individualselflessness of the person- Imputed self- Instinctive selfCognitive obscurationsIdentity of phenomena (dharma)identitylessness of things
10 Bodhichitta “The heart of awakened mind” Def: The wish to attain enlightenment for the sake of all sentient beings.Aspirational Bodhichitta:The four immeasurables –love, compassion, joy, equanimityEngaged Bodhichitta:The six perfections:Generosity, discipline, patience, joyful diligence, meditation, wisdom
11 Four ImmeasurablesImmeasurable love: wishing happiness and the causes of happiness- Antidote to enmity (and attachment)Immeasurable compassion: wishing freedom from suffering- Antidote to anger (and pity)Immeasurable joy: wishing all sentient beings never to be separated from happiness- Antidote to jealousyImmeasurable equanimity- Antidote to indifference and prejudice (and clinging)
12 Samsara and Nirvana Samsara (Skt.; lit. “wandering”) = Cycle of rebirthNirvana (Skt.; lit. “blowing out, extinguishing”)
13 Spread of Vajrayana in Tibet 3rd-11th century development of Tantra in IndiaEarly transmission in Tibet: 7th cent.= Nyingma SchoolKing Songtsen Gampo ( ?)Trisong Detsen ( )Ralpachen ( )Second dissemination (from 978 onwards)Rinchen Sangpo, Atisha, (founder of Kadampa)= eventually Sarma (“New”) Schools
14 Later DisseminationAscent of Mongols in 12th century = priest-patron relationship with Sakya1249 treaty Godan – Sakya Pandita1st Compilation of Kangyur and TengyurTsongkhapa ( )15th century: Gelukpa ascent to power1578 Sonam Gyatso meets Altan Khan = establishment of Dalai Lama title5th Dalai Lama ( ), “Great Fifth,” First Dalai Lama to rule over a unified Tibet with Mongol protection
15 The Wheel of Life: The 12 Links The 12 Links of Dependent OriginationMetaphor1. Ignorance2. Karma/formations3. Consciousness4. Name and form5. 6 senses6. Contact7. Feeling8. Craving9. Grasping10. Becoming11. Rebirth12. Old age and deathBlind manPotterMonkeyBoat w/ 4 passengersHouse w/ 6 openingsCouple kissingMan w/arrow in eyeMan takes drinkMan picks fruitPregnant womanChildbirthCorpse
16 3 Kayas (Bodies) Dharmakaya (“Embodiment of Truth”) Ultimate state of nirvana; no formSambhogakaya (“Embodiment of Enjoyment”)Form of light; not accessible to ordinary beingsNirmanakaya (“Embodiment of Manifestation”)Physical emanation
17 3 Types of Nirmanakaya (acc. to Ray) 1) Fully enlightened Buddha, e.g. Buddha Shakyamuni2) Realized human being, e.g. tulkus3) Created objects, e.g. stupa
18 Philosophical system (tenet) Drubtha (grub mtha’)siddhanta“established/final conclusion”
19 Three Prajnas (or Wisdom Tools) Wisdom of ListeningWisdom of ContemplationWisdom of Meditation
20 The Four Seals: What Makes You a Buddhist or Not a Buddhist 1. Everything compounded is impermanent.2. Everything tainted is suffering.3. All phenomena are empty and devoid of self.4. Nirvana is peace.
21 Four Buddhist Approaches YANASCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHYKEY MASTERSHinayanaVaibhashika(Tib. chedrak mawa, Particularist)Vasubandhu (4th century)Sautrantika (Tib. dodépa, Followers of Sutra):- According to scripture- According to reasoningVasubandhuDignaga ( CE)Dharmakirti (7th century)MahayanaChittamatra(Tib. Sem tsampa, Mentalist)/Yogachara (Tib. naljor chöpa, Practitioners of Yoga)Asaoga (4th century)Madhyamaka (Tib. Uma, Middle Way)Svatantrika(Uma rang gyüpa)Prāsaogika(Uma tal gyurwa)Nagarjuna (2nd century)Bhavaviveka ( )Sāntarakrita ( )Candrakirti ( )
22 The Two Truths“The doctrines that Buddha taught are based upon two truths:Worldly conventional truths and truths that are ultimate objects.Those who do not know the distinction between these two truthsDo not know the profound suchness in Buddha’s teachings.”Nagarjuna, Treatise on the Middle WayConventional truth(samvpti-satya, kundzob denpa)Ultimate truth(paramartha satya, döndam denpa)
23 The Two Truths for the Vaibharika “When objects are destroyed or mentally dissected,They can no longer be identified by the mind.Such things like pots or water, are relative;All else besides is ultimately existent.”Vasubandhu, Abhidharmakosha
24 5 Skandhas (Aggregates) = What constitutes a personForm- Outer form: E.g. five elements: wind, fire, etc.- Inner form: the body and its organsPerception: The sensory perceptionsFeeling: Positive, negative, or neutralFormation: mainly thoughts/concepts (51 types)Consciousness: 6 consciousnesses of eye, ear, nose, tongue, touch, and mental perceptions
25 The Two Truths of the Sautrantika “Here, what is genuinely able to perform a function Is what genuinely exists. Everything else is seemingly existent. These are explained as specifically characterized and generally characterized (chi dön) phenomena.” Dharmakirti, Commentary on Valid Cognition
26 Sautrantika (Followers of Sutra) Relative truth: Generally characterized (concepts)Absolute truth: Specifically characterized (the objects we directly perceive)Concepts are not problematic in themselves – it is our confusion about them. We do not see concepts accurately, just as they are.
27 Sautrantika Sautrantika following scripture Sautrantika following reasoning (Dharmakirti and Dignaga)Perception is a two-step process: In the first moment, the senses perceive the object directly, without any concepts. In the second moment, concepts enter in and we label.
28 Direct Perception (acc to Sautrantika) as opposed to inferenceSensory perception (non-conceptual)Sense consciousnessSelf-awarenessYogic perception
29 Main Points (Sautrantika) Consciousness is self-aware (rang rig) and other-aware (shen rig)We perceive the external world indirectly through mental representationsThere is a clear distinction made between perception and conceptsThe three times are imputed.
30 Four Buddhist Approaches YANASCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHYKEY MASTERSHinayanaVaibhashika(Tib. chedrak mawa, Particularist)Vasubandhu (4th century)Sautrantika (Tib. dodépa, Followers of Sutra):- According to scripture- According to reasoningVasubandhuDignaga ( CE)Dharmakirti (7th century)MahayanaChittamatra(Tib. Sem tsampa, Mentalist)/Yogachara (Tib. naljor chöpa, Practitioners of Yoga)Asaoga (4th century)Madhyamaka (Tib. Uma, Middle Way)Svatantrika(Uma rang gyüpa)Prāsaogika(Uma tal gyurwa)Nagarjuna (2nd century)Bhavaviveka ( )Shāntarakrita ( )Chandrakirti ( )
31 Does the External World Exist? Vaibhashika: The partless particle is real and the momentless moment is real.Sautrantika: I perceive it, so it must exist.Chittamatra: Only mind exists, the external world is illusory like a dream.Madhyamaka: Conventionally, there is no argument with ordinary people. Ultimately, things are neither real nor unreal, but interdependent.
32 Something is ultimately real when it is Permanent (takpa)Singular (chikpu)Independent (rangwang)
33 Mind Only“The … realms of existence are merely mind.” Buddha, in the Perfection of Wisdom (Prajnaparamita) in 8,000 Verses “The world is led by mind And drawn by mind. All phenomena are controlled By one phenomenon, mind.” Buddha, in the Collection of Related Teachings
34 Refuting the Partless Particle “When six other particles are joined to it,The subtle particle will have six parts.If the six all simply converge together,Then even compounds will be infinitesimal.”Vasubandhu, Twenty Verses
35 Eight Types of Consciousness 1-5) Five types of consciousness of the senses:• Consciousness of the eye• Consciousness of the ear• Consciousness of the nose• Consciousness of the tongue• Consciousness of the body6) Mental consciousness7) Afflicted consciousness or emotional mind: the subtle grasping which produces all the ignorance, destructive emotions and confusion of samsara.8) Allground consciousness (alaya): it is neutral, neither positive nor negative.
36 Main Points of Chittamatra No material objects can ultimately be established, only mind.There is no duality between perceiver and what is perceived.To establish all things as being the mind destroys the whole mechanism of samsara and thus leads to liberation.
37 Three Natures (Chittamatra) Imputed nature (kun tag): the false, that which is labeled or projected, e.g. the self, “mine”, names, etc. e.g. Thinking Robert de Niro is really the Godfather Dependent nature (shen wang): mind and mental events of the beings in the three realms, the perception of the eight types of consciousnesses, sense objects e.g. The images, colors, movements on the screen Ultimate nature (yong drup): the completely existent Self-awareness, nondual cognition devoid of object and subject e.g. The light bulb in the film projector that makes everything else appear
38 Chittamatra’s Two Truths “Perceived objects and perceiving subjects’ duality is relative. Consciousness that is empty of duality is genuine. This is the presentation of the mind-only school.” Jamgon Kongtrul, Treasury of Knowledge
39 “The whole purpose of Madhyamaka is to prove that everything we think is wrong.”Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche
40 No View, No Fault “If I had a position, Then I would be at fault, But because I have no position,I can only be without fault.”Nagarjuna, Refutation of Objections, Verse 29
41 Ten Questions the Buddha Answered With Silence Is the universe eternal,not eternal,finite,or infinite?After death, does a Buddha continue to exist,not continue to exist,both,or neither?Are the body and the “self” the same entity,totally separate and different entities?
42 Shunyata Def: emptiness of inherent existence Three fundamental principles to prove shunyata:a) Impermanence and changeb) Lack of unitary existence (nothing is just one, self-contained entity, everything is composed of many parts and particles)c) Lack of independent existence (for example, things are defined in relation to each other)
43 Beyond Existence and Non-existence “Existence” is the view of permanence, “Non-existence” is the view of extinction, Therefore, the wise do not abide Either in existence or in non-existence. Nagarjuna, Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way
44 Wisdom“When real and unreal both Are absent from before the mind Nothing else remains for mind to do But rest in utter peace, from concepts free.” Shantideva, Way of the Bodhisattva
45 The Five Great Madhyamika Arguments The investigation of the essential nature: ‘neither one nor many’The investigation of causes: the diamond splinters (or vajra slivers)The investigation of results: refuting existent or non-existent resultsThe investigation of both causes and resultsThe investigation of interdependence
46 The Four Extremes“There is no existence nor non-existence, Neither both nor not both. Those who are free from the four extremes Are referred to as “Madhyamikas”.” Ornament of the Middle Way
47 Interdependence“There is not a single thing That does not arise interdependently. Therefore there is not a single thing That is not emptiness.” Nagarjuna
48 Arising: Examining the Cause If things truly exist,they have to be produced, or arise, either from themselves,from something other than themselves,from both of these, orWithout a cause.
49 Refutation “Not from self, not from other, Not from both and not from neither—Not from any entity at all anywhere,Is there ever any production.”Nagarjuna, Fundamental Verses of the Middle Way“Since things do no arise from self, other, both, nor without cause,They have no inherent nature at all.”Chandrakirti
50 Shunyata = Possibilities “If emptiness is possible, Then everything is possible, But if emptiness is impossible, Then nothing else is possible either.” Nagarjuna, Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way
51 Divisions of Madhyamaka SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHYKEY MASTERSMadhyamaka“Middle Way”Nagarjuna (2nd cent)Aryadeva (3rd cent)SUBSCHOOLSPrasangika“Consequentialist”Buddhapalita (6th cent)Chandrakirti ( )Shantideva (8th cent)Svatantrika“Autonomous School”Bhavaviveka ( )Rangtong“Self-Empty”Shentong“Other-Empty”YogacharaSynthesis of Chittamatra and MadhyamakaShantarakshita ( )Kamalashila
52 Why Holding on to a Self Leads to Suffering “When there is a self, one believes there is other.From these images of self and other come attachment and aversion.As a result of getting wrapped up in these,All possible faults arise.”Dharmakirti
53 Perfection of Wisdom“Form is emptiness, Emptiness is form. Form is no other than emptiness, Emptiness is no other than form.” From the Sutra of the Heart of Transcendent Wisdom
54 Interdependence: Beyond 8 Extremes “Everything that arises interdependently is Unceasing and unborn, Neither non-existing nor everlasting, Neither coming nor going, Neither several in meaning nor with a single meaning.” Nagarjuna, Introduction to Fundamental Verses of the Middle Way
55 Fruition“What is without abandonment, without attainment, Without annihilation, without permanence, Without cessation, and without arising Is said to be nirvana.” Nagarjuna, Fundamental Treatise on the Middle Way
56 Divisions of Lineages LINEAGE KEY MASTERS Bon Nyingma “Ancient” or “Old Translation”PadmasambhavaSARMA“New Schools”KadamAtisha(arrived in Tibet 1042)Kagyü“Oral Lineage”Tilopa ( ), Naropa ( )Marpa, MilarepaKarmapasSakya“Gray Earth”Virupa (9th or 10th C), DrogmiSakya PanditasGelug“Way of the Virtuous”Tsongkhapa ( )Dalai LamasRIMÉ“Non-sectarian”Jamgon Kongtrul Lodro Tayé
57 Separation from the Four Attachments If you are attached to this life, then you are not a Dharma practitioner.If you are attached to existence (samsara), then you do not have renunciation.If you are attached to your own interests, then you do not have the mind of enlightenment (bodhichitta).If there is grasping, then you do not have the view.Künga Ningypo ( )
58 Tantric Initiation Vase initiation (found in all tantra sets) Secret initiation (only in highest tantra)Wisdom initiationWord initiation= relation to 4 vidyadhara states= purpose to attain the 4 kayas (Dharmak., Sambhogak., Nirmanak., Svabhavikakaya)
59 4 CLASSES OF TANTRAAction Tantras: Outer activities, purification rituals, e.g. fastingPerformance Tantras: Emphasize external activities and internal yoga, view of oneself as companion of deityYoga Tantras: visualizing oneself as actual deity. Emphasizes internal yoga.Highest Yoga Tantras: Generation and completion. Subtle energies, winds, channels.
60 5 Buddha Families Buddha Vajra Ratna (Jewel) Padma (Lotus) Karma (Action)NameVairochanaAkshobyaRatnasambhavaAmitabhaAmoghasiddhaColorWhiteBlueYellowRedGreenPoisonIgnoranceAngerGreedDesireEnvy/jealousyWisdomAll-pervasiveMirror-likeEquanimityDiscriminatingAll-accomplishingPositionCenter/EastEast/CenterSouthWestNorthMudraTeachingEarth touchingGenerosityMeditationFearlessnessSymbolWheelJewelLotusDouble VajraConsortTaraMamakiLochanaPandaravasiniSamayataraSkandhaFormConsciousnessSensationPerceptionFormationElementSpaceWaterEarthFireAir
63 The Fourteen Dalai Lamas 1st: Gyalwa Gendun Drubpa2nd: Gyalwa Gendun Gyatso3rd: G Sonam Gyatso4th: G Yonten Gyatso5th: G Ngawang Lobzang Gyatso6th: G Tsangyang Gyatso7th: G Kalzang Gyatso8th: G Jampel Gyatso9th: G Lungtok Gyatso10th: G Tsultrim Gyatso11th: G Khedrub Gyatso12th: G Trinley Gyatso13th: G Thubten Gyatso14th: G Tenzin Gyatso *July 6, 1935
65 Bardo (Inbetween States) Acc. to The Tibetan Book of the Dead (lit. “Liberation by Hearing While Inbetween”):The natural bardo of this lifeBardo of dyingBardo of suchness, which features the experience of visions of various Buddha formsBardo of becoming, or rebirthBardo of dhyana (meditation)Bardo of dream (the dream state during normal sleep).
66 The Bardo of Dying: Dissolution of the Elements 1. Outer dissolution:Earth and skandha of form dissolves intoWaterFireAirSpace2. Inner dissolutionWhite and red element meet, natural luminosity dawns
68 Spread of VajrayanaIndia: Vajrayana flourished in India until the 11th century.China and countries with Chinese influence (e.g. Taiwan): began first half of the 7th century CE (close to Shingon).Tibetan Buddhism in Tibet and Himalayan region (Bhutan, Sikkim, Ladakh)Japan: In 804 CE, the Japanese monk Kukai founded the Shingon school of Vajrayāna Buddhism, which has continued to the present time. Also Tendai sect (Vajrayana influences).Indonesia and Malaysia: established in the late 8th century, driven out by Islam in the 13th century.Mongolia: began during the 13th century (Prince Godan), but revival in the 17th century and 20th century.Nepal: Newari BuddhismRussia: especially Kalmyck region, currently revival.