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Religions of South Asia Buddhism in the Subcontinent.

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Presentation on theme: "Religions of South Asia Buddhism in the Subcontinent."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Religions of South Asia

4 Buddhism in the Subcontinent

5 Siddhartha Gautama ( BCE)  Born  Born in Northeastern India (Nepal today)  Raised  Raised as a Hindu  His  His father was a king and his mother died shortly after he was born  Siddhartha  Siddhartha was a prince who lived in great luxury, kept in isolation from the outside world his entire life  Seer’s  Seer’s prediction…

6 Eye-Opening Experience At 29, Siddhartha Gautama goes out into the “real” India for the first time and sees three things he had never seen before…At 29, Siddhartha Gautama goes out into the “real” India for the first time and sees three things he had never seen before… 1. Old Age 2. Sickness 3. Death He saw true suffering for the 1 st time!He saw true suffering for the 1 st time!

7 Because of this… Siddhartha Gautama now had questions about life…Siddhartha Gautama now had questions about life… –The biggest one was, Why is there Suffering? He now rejected his rich lifestyle to seek enlightenment & the source of sufferingHe now rejected his rich lifestyle to seek enlightenment & the source of suffering

8 Becoming the Buddha  Lived a strict ascetic life for 6 yrs  Ascetic: person who has few material possessions & has given up all pleasures and comforts  Punished his body in order to find answers (Hindu way)  Later rejected this extreme, because he was only closer to death!  Began eating again, sat in meditation, and found nirvana…

9 How many of you know Nirvana as a band from the nineties?  Nirvana: freedom from the cycle of birth & death; condition of wanting nothing, the perfect peace  Realized “the middle way” was best  Became “The Enlightened One,” at 35.

10 What is the fundamental cause of all suffering? Desire!  Therefore,  Therefore, extinguish the self, don’t obsess about oneself.

11 Four Noble Truths 1st Noble Truth: 1. -Suffering is universal -Everyone suffers from pain, sickness, & death.

12 Four Noble Truths 2nd Noble Truth: 2. The cause of suffering is desire & attachments. -Ex. = $, beauty, power, etc. People desire things that won’t last! 1. Nothing is permanent. 2. Life is constantly changing. 3. Buddha said that even pleasure causes suffering. How??

13 Four Noble Truths 3rd Noble Truth: 3. The only way to end suffering is to eliminate desire & attachments. 1. By doing this one can achieve: Nirvana

14 Four Noble Truths 4th Noble Truth: 4. To reach nirvana, one must follow the Eightfold Path.

15 The Eightfold Path Practical guide to proper or “right” conduct also known as dharma Stressed: The importance of understanding suffering Compassion for all creatures Kindness & Truthfulness Buddha was a HINDU, but did not agree w/ many ideas: Did not believe in gods Did not believe the priests (brahmins) were needed to achieve nirvana and disliked their power Did not believe the caste system was needed

16 Eightfold Path Nirvana  The union with the ultimate spiritual reality.  Escape from the cycle of rebirth (samsara).  A condition of wanting nothing

17 Mandala: Wheel of Life

18 Form of art, often used for meditation Form of art, often used for meditation Shows the cycle of reincarnation (samsara) Shows the cycle of reincarnation (samsara) Mandala: Wheel of Life Form of art, often used for meditation Form of art, often used for meditation Shows the cycle of reincarnation (samsara) Shows the cycle of reincarnation (samsara)

19 Types of Buddhism  Theravada Buddhism  Mahayana Buddhism  Tibetan Buddhism  Zen Buddhism

20 Theravada Buddhism  The oldest school of Buddhism  Found in Southern Asia.  Looks at the Buddha as a great spiritual teacher.  The monastic life is the best way to achieve nirvana.  Focus on wisdom and meditation.  Goal is to become a “Buddha,” or “Enlightened One.”  Over 100,000,000 followers today.

21 Theravada Buddhism How is the spread of Buddhism an example of cultural diffusion?

22 Mahayana Buddhism  The “Great Vehicle.”  Founded in eastern Asia (China, Japan).  Buddhism “for the masses.”  Seek guidance from Boddhisatvas, wise beings.  Looks at the Buddha and others as Gods.  Goal: Not just individual escape from the wheel, but the salvation of all humanity through self-sacrifice of those enlightened few.

23 Mahayana Buddhism

24 Seated Boddhisatva – 16c Bhutan

25 Tibetan Buddhism  Developed in Tibet  A mix of Theravada and Mahayana.  Boddhisatvas include Lamas, like the Dalai Lama.

26 The Dalai Lama

27 Zen Buddhism  The “Meditation School.”  Seeks sudden enlightenment through meditation, arriving at emptiness.  Use of meditation masters  Beauty, art, practiced actions:  Gardens.  Archery.  Tea ceremony.  Calligraphy.

28 Relieve Stress & Meditate: Get a Mantra ! “Ohm...mani...padme…hung…” mantra: sound, syllable, or group of words repeated to help transform the consciousness


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