Siddhartha Gautama (563-483 BCE) Born Born in Northeastern India (Nepal today) Raised Raised as a Hindu His His father was a king and his mother died shortly after he was born Siddhartha Siddhartha was a prince who lived in great luxury, kept in isolation from the outside world his entire life Seer’s Seer’s prediction…
Eye-Opening Experience At 29, Siddhartha Gautama goes out into the “real” India for the first time and sees three things he had never seen before…At 29, Siddhartha Gautama goes out into the “real” India for the first time and sees three things he had never seen before… 1. Old Age 2. Sickness 3. Death He saw true suffering for the 1 st time!He saw true suffering for the 1 st time!
Because of this… Siddhartha Gautama now had questions about life…Siddhartha Gautama now had questions about life… –The biggest one was, Why is there Suffering? He now rejected his rich lifestyle to seek enlightenment & the source of sufferingHe now rejected his rich lifestyle to seek enlightenment & the source of suffering
Becoming the Buddha Lived a strict ascetic life for 6 yrs Ascetic: person who has few material possessions & has given up all pleasures and comforts Punished his body in order to find answers (Hindu way) Later rejected this extreme, because he was only closer to death! Began eating again, sat in meditation, and found nirvana…
How many of you know Nirvana as a band from the nineties? Nirvana: freedom from the cycle of birth & death; condition of wanting nothing, the perfect peace Realized “the middle way” was best Became “The Enlightened One,” at 35.
What is the fundamental cause of all suffering? Desire! Therefore, Therefore, extinguish the self, don’t obsess about oneself.
Four Noble Truths 1st Noble Truth: 1. -Suffering is universal -Everyone suffers from pain, sickness, & death.
Four Noble Truths 2nd Noble Truth: 2. The cause of suffering is desire & attachments. -Ex. = $, beauty, power, etc. People desire things that won’t last! 1. Nothing is permanent. 2. Life is constantly changing. 3. Buddha said that even pleasure causes suffering. How??
Four Noble Truths 3rd Noble Truth: 3. The only way to end suffering is to eliminate desire & attachments. 1. By doing this one can achieve: Nirvana
Four Noble Truths 4th Noble Truth: 4. To reach nirvana, one must follow the Eightfold Path.
The Eightfold Path Practical guide to proper or “right” conduct also known as dharma Stressed: The importance of understanding suffering Compassion for all creatures Kindness & Truthfulness Buddha was a HINDU, but did not agree w/ many ideas: Did not believe in gods Did not believe the priests (brahmins) were needed to achieve nirvana and disliked their power Did not believe the caste system was needed
Eightfold Path Nirvana The union with the ultimate spiritual reality. Escape from the cycle of rebirth (samsara). A condition of wanting nothing
Form of art, often used for meditation Form of art, often used for meditation Shows the cycle of reincarnation (samsara) Shows the cycle of reincarnation (samsara) Mandala: Wheel of Life Form of art, often used for meditation Form of art, often used for meditation Shows the cycle of reincarnation (samsara) Shows the cycle of reincarnation (samsara)
Types of Buddhism Theravada Buddhism Mahayana Buddhism Tibetan Buddhism Zen Buddhism
Theravada Buddhism The oldest school of Buddhism Found in Southern Asia. Looks at the Buddha as a great spiritual teacher. The monastic life is the best way to achieve nirvana. Focus on wisdom and meditation. Goal is to become a “Buddha,” or “Enlightened One.” Over 100,000,000 followers today.
Theravada Buddhism How is the spread of Buddhism an example of cultural diffusion?
Mahayana Buddhism The “Great Vehicle.” Founded in eastern Asia (China, Japan). Buddhism “for the masses.” Seek guidance from Boddhisatvas, wise beings. Looks at the Buddha and others as Gods. Goal: Not just individual escape from the wheel, but the salvation of all humanity through self-sacrifice of those enlightened few.