3The Wheel of Life - Samsara The Buddhataught all sentientare caught on thewheel of existence-samsara or mara’swheel which isdivided into sixrealms. Examinethe diagram of thewheelof life and discuss withyour group what you think it suggests aboutexistence
4Six Classes of Sentient Beings Can you think how each of these states could be considered to be states of mind ?
5The Three Poisons Greed / desire/ craving –rooster- Hatred - snake Ignorance/ delusion – pigEach of these are depicted in a circle biting the tail of the one in front. Why do you think they do this ?Why do you think they are called the three poisons ?Give examples of how each of these can lead to harmful consequences .
6The Three PoisonsTanha – 3 root poisons are all tanha. Tanha is desire that is valued too highly or is directed wrongly. Some desires are positive e.g. wanting the best for someone else or the desire for enlightenment. This kind of desire is described as Chanda to distinguish it from harmful desires.( second of noble truths )Avijja – ignorance of the reality of how things truly are. This ignorance leads to desire – suffering – samsaraAlthough these two are 2 of the 3 poisons, they underpin all the three poisons.
7Next to the central circle is a concentric band divided along two halves. One is colored softly and radiantly, while the other is black. The darker portion shows individuals who have chosen the path of darkness and thus descend into gloomy depths. The glowing path, however, is the one taken by those following the righteous way, attaining spiritual ascension. Hence it shows mortals rising towards greater spiritual heights.
8Interdependent Origination : cause and effect Buddha taught that everything that exists is due to something that went before. Clearly things have an existence but not a permanent one as they come into being and then cease. Thus things can be said to exist relatively but not ultimatelyGive examples of where you can see this is trueIs this is true of all things ?
9The twelve links or nidanas showing how cause and effect work Ignorance -blind manKammic formations- potter at a wheelConsciousness-monkey up a treeName and form- 2 travellers in a boatSensations – an empty houseContact –woman and man embracingFeeling- man with an arrow in his eyeCraving – person drinking alcoholAttachment – monkey grasping fruitBeing (becoming) - pregnant womanBirth-a woman giving birthAgeing and dying- man carrying a corpse
13The Wheel of Life - Samsara From Luminous Emptiness: Understanding the Tibetan Book of the Dead by Francesca Fremantle "The Buddha described all worldly phenomena as having three characteristics: impermanence, suffering and non-self. We suffer because we imagine what is not self to be self, what is impermanent to be permanent, and what, from an ultimate viewpoint, is pain to be pleasure. Existence with these three characteristics is called samsara, which means Samsara is not the actual external world or life itself, but the way we interpret them.
14The Wheel of Life - Samsara Samsara is life as we live it under the influence of ignorance, the subjective world each of us creates for ourselves. This world contains good and evil, joy and pain, but they are relative, not absolute; they can be defined only in relationship to each other and are continually changing into their opposites. Although samsara seems to be all-powerful and all-pervading, it is created by our own state of mind, like the world of a dream, and it can be dissolved into nothingness just like awakening from a dream. When someone awakens to reality, even for a moment, the world does not disappear but is experienced in its true nature: pure, brilliant, sacred and indestructible.
15Samsara is life as we live it under the influence of ignorance, the subjective world each of us creates for ourselves
16The Wheel of Life - Samsara Interdependent origination (Skt., pratityasamutpada) is the law of causality, which Shakyamuni discovered at his awakening. It revealed to him the whole truth of existence, and in penetrating it he became the Awakened One.What he saw was a total vision of how and why all beings throughout space and time are entangled in samsara for countless lives,as well as his own past lives in his progress toward liberation
17The Wheel of Life - Samsara This was the extraordinary insight that distinguished his teaching from others, so it is said, “whoever sees interdependent origination sees the dharma, whoever sees the dharma sees the Buddha.”
18The Wheel of Life – Samsara Interdependent Origination : cause and effect According to this law, nothing has independent, permanent, or Absolute Existence. Everything is part of a limitlessweb of interconnections and undergoes a continual process of transformation.
19Every appearance arises from complex causes and conditions, and in turn combines with others to produce countless effects
20The Wheel of Life – Samsara Interdependent Origination : cause and effect .By interrupting the causal chain at certain key points, the course of existence can be altered and effects prevented by eliminating their causes.
21The Wheel of Life – Samsara Interdependent Origination : cause and effect This law embraces all the basic principles of Buddhism. (The late Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche said that the wholerange of teachings, from the shravakayana to dzogchen, has only the meaning of interdependent origination.)It demonstrates the doctrines of karma and rebirth. The three marks of existence are inherent within it:there is no unchanging self in this process, and it is characterized by impermanence and suffering, since whatever comes into being must change and pass away.
22The Wheel of Life – Samsara Interdependent Origination : cause and effect The four noble truths flow from it: the first truth is the recognition of inherent suffering; the second truth, the cause of suffering, is shown by the law; understanding the cause of suffering leads to its cessation, the third truth;therefore, there is a path to liberation, the fourth truth.
23The twelve links or nidanas Its best known formulation is the twelve causal links, which has been called the karmic chain reaction. In the traditional image of the Wheel of Life, it depicts the life, death and rebirth of sentient beings,but it can also be understood as the life cycle of appearances, actions, thoughts or any phenomenon whatever. Essentially it analyzes the process of an illusion crystallizing out of emptiness and being taken for reality.
24The twelve links or nidanas Ignorance (Unawareness) Conditioning, Consciousness, Name and form, the Six Senses,Contact, Feeling, Craving, Grasping, Becoming, Rebirth, Aging and Death Conditions of samsara, dependent arising: Ignorance leading to defiled consciousness giving rise to name and form Six senses form contact with phenomenal world and feeling arises along with it. Desire for the phenomenal world follows thus becoming aging death , rebirthNow look at each of these in your workbook and make notes from support material and textbook
25The Wheel of Life – Samsara Interdependent Origination : cause and effect The twelve links are: (1) ignorance or unawareness, which imagines self and the world to have intrinsic existence; (2) conditioning, the karmic forces that ripen in the ground of ignorance from seeds sown in previous lives and formthe conditioning factors of the next life; (3) consciousness, arising from conditioning, which carries the sense of selfand operates through the mind and senses; (4) name and form, the totality of an individual’s mental and physical constituents; .
26The Wheel of Life – Samsara Interdependent Origination : cause and effect (6) contact, the meeting of the senses with their objects; (7) feeling, the positive or negative sensations aroused by contact; (8) thirst, the desire to possess or avoid these sensations; (9) grasping, the physical, verbal or mental action that follows thirst;(10) existence or becoming, the coming into existence that results from grasping;(11) birth, manifesting in one of the six realms; (12) decay and death, the process of aging and passing away that inevitably follows birth..
27The Wheel of Life – Samsara Interdependent Origination : cause and effect The circle of the twelvefold chain is continuous, a self-contained system without beginning or end. At death we fall back into ignorance and start all over again. The whole cycle can be contemplated in reverse order,starting with death and tracing its causes back to ignorance. Although the links appear sequentially,they may also be seen as interconnected, simultaneous, and mutuallydependent. The wheel is a schematic picture, designed to demonstrate the conditioned andrelative nature of apparent existence, while exposing sentient beings’ intense attachment and habituation to the causes of suffering..
28The Wheel of Life – Samsara Interdependent Origination : cause and effect For significant as life and death may seem, genuine as suffering is, and seriously as we must regard the law of karma, as long as we remain within samsara, nothing produced by interdependent origination has ultimate reality. It is an illusion appearing from ignorance, whose nature is the error of belief in self. Since it has never existed it cannot be destroyed. It is dispelled only by the wisdom of non-self. Transcending both existence and nonexistence, it is self-liberated into emptiness, the vast openness of space beyond conceptual thought.".
29The Wheel of Life – Samsara Interdependent Origination : cause and effect REALITY, FORM, PERCEPTION, EMPTINESS, AGGREGATES, and the 12 LINKSEverything is conditioned, relative, and interdependent. This is the Buddhist understanding of Emptiness.On this principle of conditionality, relativity and interdependence - the whole existence and continuity of karma, life, and its cessation are explained in The 12 Links of Interdependent Origination..
30The Wheel of Life – Samsara Interdependent Origination : cause and effect To understand The 12 Links of Interdependent Origination The "five skandhas" (groups) refer to the physical and mental elements that determine the characteristics of a person.The skandhas are: form, feeling, perception, impulse, and consciousness. In The Heart Sutra, The Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara told Shariputra that the five skandhas are just Emptiness (i.e., experienced in daily Relative Reality but non-existent in Absolute Reality).Emptiness refers to the nature or characteristics of the five skandhas, etc. .
31The twelve links or nidanas The 12 Links are also Emptiness. Although they do exist in our Relative Reality and daily experience, they do not exist in Absolute Reality."Suffering, the Cause, the Cessation, and the Path to Cessation" are called the Four Noble Truths.In Buddhism, it is deemed that sufferings of human beings stem from attachments or desires (cause).To get rid of sufferings, it is necessary to get rid of attachments or desires (cessation); and to get rid of causes, it is necessary to follow the right path (Noble Eightfold Path,the Essence of Shakyamuni Buddha's teachings: Right Understanding, Right Thought, Right Speech, Right Action, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right Meditation and Right Concentration). By following the right path with right intent, it is possible to achieve Enlightenment and Liberation.see also The Heart Sutra [Prajna Paramita] of Buddha Shakyamuni
32The twelve links or nidanas The key to the Buddha's realizationand teaching is the understandingof causality, because it is only whenwe know the cause of somethingthat we can truly bring it to an endand prevent it from arising again.In his search for the origin of suffering, he found that he had to go right back to the very beginning,to the very first flicker of individual self-awareness.
33The twelve links or nidanas In his spiritual practice, too, he always went further and further, never satisfied with the states of knowledge, peace and bliss that he attained under the guidance of his teachers. He always wanted to know their cause and to see what lay beyond. In this way, he surpassed his teachers and eventually attained his great awakening.The Buddha awoke to a state of perfect enlightenment, which he described as deathless, unborn and unchanging. If it were not for that, he said, there could be no escape from birth and death, impermanence and suffering.
34The Wheel of LifeCheck out the following website for an excellent article on the wheel of life