2 CancerCancer is a disease ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.
3 Types of CancersCarcinomasMelanomasLeukemiasLymphomasSarcomas
4 Carcinomas ____________________________________ Grow from cells that cover the outside of the body, such as cells ____________, and cells that cover internal body surfaces, such as ___________________________________.These cancers can invade surrounding tissues and organs and spread to the lymph nodes.
5 SarcomasGrow from cells in connective or supportive tissue in the body, such as bone, cartilage, joints, muscle, fat, nerves, deep skin tissues and blood vessels.These are relatively rare cancers, accounting for about _____________________________________.
6 LeukemiaLeukemia is a cancer of _____________________________________.Two major types of leukemia are:Lymphocytic leukemia – increase of white blood cells known as lymphocytesMyelogenous leukemia – increase of white blood cells known as granulocytesLeukemia can be acute or chronic. Acute progresses __________, whereas chronic forms of leukemia progress _____________, leading to different approaches to diagnosis and treatment.
7 LeukemiasIf you have Leukemia, your bone marrow produces abnormally large numbers of ______ ________________ that block the production of normal white blood cells, which help you fight infections, and red blood cells, which carry oxygen to tissues throughout your body.More common in _______________ than __________________.
8 Risk Factors Chronic exposure to benzene Exposure to large doses of ___________.Cancer-causing chemicals in tobacco
9 Leukemia Statistics36,273 people in the United States were diagnosed with leukemia, including 20,629 males and 15,644 females.21,928 people in the United States died from leukemia, including 12,434 males and 9,494 females.
10 LymphomaLymphoma is a general term for a group of cancers that originate in the lymph system.Two primary types of lymphoma are:Hodgkin lymphoma – _____________________________________________________________________________Non-Hodgkin lymphoma – ______________________________________________________________________________
11 LymphomasArise in lymph nodes and other tissues of your immune system, which is the body’s defense system against infections and some cancers.Lymph tissues include:Tonsils_______________Thymus (small organ near the chest)___________________________
12 Risk Factors Main causes of lymphoma are ____________. Research has shown that people infected with ________ are at much higher risk of developing lymphoma.Some other studies suggest that specific ingredients in herbicides and pesticides can cause lymphoma
13 Non-Hodgkin Statistics 58,393 people in the United States were diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, including 31,351 men and 27,042 women.20,528 people in the United States died from non-Hodgkin lymphoma, including 11,004 men and 9,524 women.
14 Myeloma Myeloma is a cancer of _____________________________. The cells overgrow, forming a mass or tumor that is located ______________________.Bone marrow is the spongy tissue found in the center of the bone, where red cells, white blood cells, and platelets are made.
15 Risk FactorsPeople under the age of _______ years rarely develop the disease.Those who are ______ years or older are at the greatest risk of developing myeloma.__________ are more likely than __________ to develop myeloma.Myeloma is twice as common among African Americans than Caucasians.
16 Myeloma Statistics16,776 people in the United States were diagnosed with myeloma, including 9,240 men and 7,536 women.10,872 people in the United States died from myeloma, including 5,810 men and 5,062 women.
17 Breast CancerMany conditions can cause lumps in the breast, including cancer.Two most common forms of breast lumps are fibrocystic breast condition and cysts.Fibrocystic lump - _________________________________________________________________________________________Cysts - _______________________________________________________________
18 Tumors and Breast Cancer Sometimes breast cells become abnormal, these cells grow, divide, and create new cells that the body does not need and that do not function normally.The extra cells form a mass called a tumor. Sometimes tumors are _____________ or not cancer. These tumors usually stay in one spot in the breast and do not cause big health problems.
19 Tumors and Breast Cancer Other tumors are _______________ and are cancerous.Breast cancer often starts out too small to be felt, as it grows it can spread throughout the breast or to other parts of the body.The kind of breast cancer depends on which cells in the breast turn into cancer.Cancer can begin in different parts of the breast, like _______________________.
20 Common Types of Breast Cancer ________________________– The most common type of breast cancer. Begins in the cells that line the milk ducts in the breast.Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) – The abnormal cancer cells are only in the lining of the ________________________________________.Invasive ductal carcinoma – The abnormal cancer cells break through the ____________________________________________________________________. Invasive cancer cells can also spread to other parts of the body.
21 Common Types of Breast Cancer _______________________– In this kind of breast cancer, the cancer cells begin in the lobes, or the lobules of the breast. (Lobules are the glands that make milk.)Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) – The cancer cells are found only ____________________________. Does not spread to other tissues.Invasive lobular carcinoma – Cancer cells spread from lobules to __________________________. The invasive cancer cells can also spread to other parts of the body.
23 Fast FactsThe most common cancer in women, no matter your race or ethnicity.The most common cause of death from cancer among ________________________.The _____________ most common cause of death from cancer among white, black, Asian/Pacific, and American Indian.In 2007, there were 202,964 women diagnosed with breast cancer. And 40,598 women died from breast cancer.
24 What about us dudes?Men can get breast cancer. In men, breast cancer can happen _____________, but is most common in men between ____ and _____ years old. Male breast cancer is not very common. For every 100 cases of breast cancer, ____________ is in men.
25 Risk Factors ______________________. Being younger when you had your first ______________________.Starting _______________ at a later age.Being older at the birth of your first child.Not breastfeeding.Personal history of breast cancer.Treatment with radiation therapy to the breast/chest.______________________.Long term of hormone replacement therapy.Having changes in the breast cancer-related genes.Using _________________.Not getting regular exercise.
26 Prevention – Lowering the Risk of Breast Cancer
27 Symptoms of Breast Cancer ________________________________________.Thickening or swelling of part of the breast.Redness or flaky skin in the nipple area or breast.Nipple discharge other than breast milk, including blood.Any change in the size or the shape of the breast._________________________________.
28 Screening for Breast Cancer ___________________ – an X-ray of the breast. Best method of detecting cancer early on._________________________– an examination by a doctor or a nurse, who uses his or her hands to feel for lumps or other changes.__________________ – when you check your own breast for lumps, changes in size, or any other changes.
29 Treatment of Breast Cancer _________________ – operation where doctors cut out and remove cancer tissue.______________________ – using special medicines, or drugs to shrink or kill the cancer. Can be pills or given through an IV tube._______________________– works with body’s immune system to help fight cancer or control side effects from other cancer treatments.________________ – High-energy rays to kill the cancer cells. Rays are pointed in the area where cancer is located.
30 Prostate Cancer The prostate is part of the male reproductive system. Prostate cancer cells spread to other parts of the body, they are called _______________.
31 Fast Facts Most common cancer in men, no matter race or ethnicity. ________ most common cause of death from cancer among menMore common in ___________________ men compared to ________________ men.In 2007, almost a ¼ of a million men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. 29,000 of them died from prostate cancer.
33 Symptoms Difficulty starting urination _______________________________________Frequent _______________, especially at nightDifficulty emptying the bladder completelyPain or burning during urination_____________________________________.Pain in the back, hips, or pelvis that doesn’t go away_____________________________
34 Prostate Cancer Screening Treatment _______________________ Doctor or nurse checks the size of the prostate_________________________________________Blood test that measures the level of PSA in the blood___________________Remove the prostate completely_______________________Destroy the cancer cells or prevent them from growingDrugs, surgery, or other hormones to remove male sex hormones or block them from working_____________________
35 Skin Cancer Skin cancer is ______________________ cancer in the U.S. Common types of skin cancer:Basal CellSquamous cell carcinomas________________ – most dangerous, caused by exposure to ultraviolet light (UV)
36 Melanomas ____________________ of skin cancers. Initially appear on the surface of the skin as a change in the shape, size, color, or feel of a mole.Most malignant melanomas _____________________________________.Easier to treat _______________, they can grow down into skin, reach blood vessels and lymphatic vessels and _____________________________________.
37 Types of UV rays__________________– most common sunlight at the earth’s surface and reaches beyond the top layer of human skin___________________– most of these are absorbed by the ozone layer. Less common at earth’s surface___________________– very dangerous, but do not reach the ground due to the ozone layer
38 Risk Factors for Skin Cancer Lighter natural skin color____________________________Exposure to the sun through work and playA history of sunburns early in life___________________________Skin that burns, freckles, reddens easily, or becomes painful in the sun_____________________________________________________Certain types and a large number of moles
40 Lung CancerCancer that begins in the lungs and can spread to other organs. When it spreads from one organ to another it is called metastases.Risk Factors1.2.3.
41 Lung CancerIn the United States, about _____% of lung cancer deaths in men and almost ______% of lung cancer deaths in women are due to smoking. People who smoke are ___________ times more likely to get lung cancer or die from lung cancer than people who do not smoke.
42 Symptoms of Lung Cancer ____________________________Coughing that doesn’t go away______________________Coughing up Blood___________________Other changes that can sometimes occur with lung cancer may include repeated bouts of pneumonia and swollen or enlarged lymph nodes in the chest area
44 Side Effects of Chemotherapy ________________Appetite Changes_________________ConstipationDiarrhea__________________Flu-like symptomsFluid Retention___________________Infection__________________Mouth and throat changesNausea and vomitingNervous System changesPain____________________Skin and nail changes___________________Urinary, kidney, and bladder changes
45 Nervous System and Chemotherapy Tingling, burning, weakness, or numbness in your hands or feetFeeling colder than normal_______________________Weak, sore, tired, or achy musclesBeing clumsy and losing your balanceTrouble picking up objects or buttoning your clothesShaking or trembling______________________Stomach pain, such as constipation or heartburn___________________Confusion and memory problems____________________Depression